Unit 3: Skeletal and Muscular System

Cath Warriner
Flashcards by Cath Warriner, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Cath Warriner
Created by Cath Warriner over 6 years ago
Cath Warriner
Copied by Cath Warriner over 6 years ago
Cath Warriner
Copied by Cath Warriner over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
What are the functions of the skeleton? Movement, Protection, Support, Blood Production,
Name a bone in the lower arm. Radius or Ulna
Name a bone in the lower leg Tibia or Fibula
Name the four types of bones Long, Short, Irregular, Flat
Give two examples of long bones Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Tibia, Fibula
Give an example of an irregular bone Patella or Vertebrae
Give an example of a short bone Carpals Tarsals Phalanges
Give two examples of flat bones Scapula, Pelvis, Cranium
Name the 6 types of synovial joints Hinge, Ball and socket, Pivot, Saddle, Condyloid, Gliding
Give two examples of a hinge joint Elbow or Knee
Give two examples of a ball and socket joint Shoulder or Hip
Give an example of a pivot joint Neck
Give an example of a saddle joint Thumb
Give an example of a condyloid joint Wrist Finger
Give an example of a gliding joint Carpals in the hand (wrist)
What is a joint? A connection point between two bones where movement occurs
Name an immovable joint Cranium Pelvis
Name a slightly moveable joint Vertebral Column and Ribs and Sternum
Name a freely moveable joint The 6 synovial joint categories Ball & socket - Shoulder Hinge - Elbow Pivot - neck Condyloid - wrist Saddle - thumb Gliding - carpals in the wrist
Name the three connective tissues Tendon, Ligament, Cartilage
Describe a tendon and give it's function Tendons are very strong, white, non elastic cords that join the muscle to bone
Describe a ligament and give it's function Ligaments are bands of white slightly elastic fibres which attach bone to bone at a joint
Describe cartilage and give it's function Cartilage is a shiny, smooth white covering (flexible tissue) found at the end of bones. Its function is to act as a buffer (shock absorber)
Name the 5 types of movement Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation
What is the definition for flexion? Give a sporting example. Flexion: decreasing the angle of a joint, the bending of a limb. Performing a bicep curl
What is the definition for extension? Give a sporting example Extension is increasing the angle of a joint, the straightening of a limb. Performing a chest pass in netball
What is the definition for abduction? Give a sporting example. Abduction: movement of the limb away from the midline of the body. Performing a lateral raise Performing the splits
What is the definition for adduction? Give a sporting example Adduction: movement of a limb towards the midline of the body. Cross over flys in weight training Breast stroke entering the glide position
What is the definition for rotation? Give a sporting example Rotation: When the bone or limb moves freely in a curve. Bowling a cricket ball Turning to breathe in the front crawl
Name the three types of muscles Voluntary Involuntary Cardiac
How do you define a voluntary muscle? It works under our conscious control, we decide when to move them.
Name 4 muscles found in the upper body Pectorals Biceps Triceps Deltoids Trapezius Abdominals Latissimus dorsi
Name 4 muscles found in the lower body Sartorius Quadriceps Hamstrings Gastrocnemius
What are the characteristics of an involuntary muscle? They work automatically with no need for conscious command.
Give an example of an involuntary muscle Diaphragm Blood vessels Heart
What is an isotonic muscular contraction? Movement that occurs at the joint. They can be concentric or eccentric.
What is concentric contraction? Give a sporting example. The contracting muscle shortens and fattens, it tends to bulge. The biceps in a bicep curl.
What is eccentric contraction? Give a sporting example. The muscle gradually lengthens, extends and returns to its normal length and shape. The biceps when the weight is being lowered in a bicep curl.
What is isometric muscular contraction? Give a sporting example. There is no actual movement of either the limb or the joint. Muscles are working hard to keep the joint stable. Performing a handstand, static wall squat or rugby scrum.
Muscles work in pairs and is known as an antagonistic pairing. What is the working and relaxing muscle known as? Working = agonist muscle (prime mover) Relaxing muscle = antagonist muscle
Muscles are connected to the bones by tendons. Where is the origin and insertion of the biceps tendons? The origin is at the scapula (the stationary bone) The insertion is at the radius (the moving bone)
Explain how muscles and bones work together to create movement. Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons. Muscles only pull and so work in pairs (antagonistic pairing). The bicep contracts and is the agonist muscle whilst teh triceps relax and are the antagonist muscle. This action creates flexion and results in the angle of the joint decreasing and allows the bicep curl to be performed. The origin is where the muscle tendons of the bicep join the scapula and teh insertion is where the bicep attaches to the radius. Ligaments hold the bone to bone to stabilise the joint.
Name three types of strength. Static Explosive Dynamic
Give the definition for static strength. The greatest amount of strength that can be applied to an immovable object.
Give a sporting example for static strength A handstand Rugby scrum Static wall squat A sprinter waiting in the blocks
Give the definition for explosive strength The muscular strength used in one short, sharp, movement.
Give a sporting example for explosive strength A 100m sprinter leaving the blocks A gymnast performing a vault
Give the definition for dynamic strength The muscular strength needed to support your own body weight over a prolonged period of time
Give a sporting example for dynamic strength A gymnast performing on the pommel horse A gymnast performing a routine on the rings
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