Parkinsonism Drugs

Mary Mikhail
Flashcards by Mary Mikhail, updated more than 1 year ago
Mary Mikhail
Created by Mary Mikhail over 5 years ago
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drugs

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Anatomy and Physio review - dopamine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, is produced in the substantia nigra --> these neurons supple dopamine to the basal nuclei - basal nuclei = gray matter within white matter in the cerebrum - there must be a balance between dopamine and ACTH in order for balance and posture to be maintained and for muscle tone and involuntary muscle movement to remain "normal"
Anatomy and Physio review - in Parkinson's disease, destruction of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in lowered dopamine ---> basal nuclei now does not have enough dopamine to carry out their usual functions - acetylcholine now takes over
what are the goals of antiparkinsonism drugs? to restore the balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in specific regions of the brain (basal nuclei) that control unconscious muscle movement.
Groups of Parkinsonism Drugs a) dopaminergic drugs b) anticholinergic drugs
Dopaminergic Drugs - the goal of dopaminergic drugs is restore dopamine levels in the basal ganglia (carbidopa-levodapa) - levodopa causes increased synthesis of dopamine within the axon terminals
Dopaminergic drugs - carbidopa and levodopa acts outside the CNS to decrease the metabolism of the levodopa to dopamine and so makes more levodopa available to enter the CNS
Adjunct drugs in the group - drugs that inhibit enzymes that destroy levodopa and dopamine - dopamine agonists - antiviral agents - COMT inhibitors
Dopamine agonists directly activate the dopamine receptor
Antiviral agents causes the release of dopamine from the axon terminals
COMT Inhibitors increase the concentrations of existing dopamine in the brain
Anticholinergic drugs - mechanism of action block the ACTH neurotransmitter in the brain and thus inhibit the overactivity of ACTH in the corpus striatum
Anticholinergic drugs - uses used for clients who cannot tolerate levodopa
Anticholinergic drugs - side effects this drug leads to decreased ACTH activity --> leads to anti-parasympathetic effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, tachycardia, blurred vision, urinary retention
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