AcDec Science Section I Part 1

stegover
Flashcards by stegover, updated more than 1 year ago
stegover
Created by stegover over 5 years ago
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These are the flash cards for section one of the science packet.

Resource summary

Question Answer
This provides a structure for collecting and interpreting observations The Scientific Method
___________ on the natural world prompt scientists to question the __________ behind the observed phenomena Observations ; Explanations
This refers to an educated guess on the explanation of a phenomenon Hypothesis
A hypothesis must be _______, ________, and inclusive of a _____________ statement Specific ; Testable ; Cause and Effect
Experiments must either ______ or ________ the original hypothesis Support ; Refute
These explain the results of a large number of experimental observations Scientific Theories
Theories constantly evolve as scientists _______ and _______ more ecological data Collect ; Interpret
This constitutes a broad field, analyzing interactions across many spatial and temporal scales Ecology
Ecology can study ______ or ______ periods of time Long ; Short
Ecology can study ______ or ______ geographic areas Large ; Small
Ecology studies the interactions between _______ ________ and the _________ Living Organisms ; Environment
This examines human impacts on the environment, rather than biologic interactions Environmental Studies
This refers to a social movement that seeks to minimize human impacts on the environment Environmentalism
Interactions among species and the environment control the ___________ __________ and ___________ of species Geographic Distribution ; Abundance
These interactions take place between two organisms Biotic Interactions
These interactions take place between organisms and their physical environment Abiotic Interactions
The term "ecology" was coined in this year 1866
This German ecologist coined the term Ecology Ernst Haeckel
"Ecology" is derived from the word "oekologie" which takes the greek roots "oikos" and "logos", which mean House ; Science
Haeckel connected ecology with this man's theory of _______ _______ Charles Darwin ; Natural Selection
This explains how favorable heritable characteristics pass down through generations Natural Selection
Organisms with _________ _________ survive to reproduce and pass them on Useful Characteristics
__________ and __________ change as a result of Natural Selection Species Distribution ; Abundance
This graphic describes the levels of ecology. The smallest level is at the top, and the largest level is at the bottom The Ecological Pyramid
The order of the Ecological Pryamid Individual Organism Population of Organisms Community of Populations Ecosystem includes Abiotic Factors Landcape includes Multiple Ecosystems Biome includes Similar Ecosystems Biosphere is all of the inhabited Earth
The weather is made up of Temperature ; Humidity ; Precipitation ; Wind
The wind _______ surfaces and _______ particles Erodes ; Transports
Plants in windy environments have evolved to have ______ stems, ______ statures, and _______ leaves to withstand the wind Flexible ; Small ; Narrow
The long term weather patterns in an area refer to that area's _______ Climate
Variations in climate are caused by Varying amounts of sunlight hitting different parts of the planet
High humidity and minimal seasonal temperature fluctuations indicate a __________ climate Maritime
Large seasonal temperature fluctuations indicate a _________ climate Continental
This type of tree is well adapted to hurricane force winds The Palm Tree
The arrangement of geographical features refers to __________ Topography
Varying topography can cause changes in __________ _______ Regional Climate
This explains climate differences across mountain ranges The Orographic Effect
The Orographic Effect is also called The Rain Shadow Effect
Explain the Orographic Effect 1. Cool air from the ocean drops its water as precipitation as it moves up a mountain 2. The windward side of mountains usually feature tall forests 3. Dry air moves down the other side, creating harsh, arid climates
The Orographic Effect explains the climate differences between the ________ ______________, and the _______ _______ Pacific Northwest ; Great Basin
The Mountain range that separates the Pacific Northwest and the Great Basin is the _______ ________ Cascade Range
The Western side of the Cascade Range is ______ and ______, while the Eastern side is _______ and _______ Wet, Rainy ; Hot, Dry
Climate varies over _______ and _______ Time ; Space
Earth's rotation on it's axis controls _______ weather patterns Daily
The Earth's revolution around the Sun controls ________ weather patterns Seasonal
As Earth orbits and revolves, the intensity of _______ _______ striking a certain area _____ Solar Radiation ; Varies
The _________ and __________ regions have the greatest variation in radiation amounts. This means they also have the greatest ________ fluctuation Polar, Temperate ; Seasonal
Large-scale cycles in _______ ______ and the ________ drive global climate shifts Ocean Currents ; Atmosphere
Variations in atmospheric pressure create the ___ ______ _________ _________, also abbreviated as ________ El Niño Southern Oscillation ; ENSO
El Niño warms the ocean near the _______, causing warmer and ______ winters in the American ________ and ________ Equator ; Drier ; Northwest, Midwest
Winters along the _________ pacific coast become cooler and ________ Southwest ; Wetter
The ENSO cycle occurs irregularly every _____ to _____ years 3 ; 7
__ ______ usually follows El Niño and produces the _______ climate shifts La Niña ; Opposite
Long-term climate shifts over millions of years drive _______ Evolution
Earth has experienced many phases of _______ and _______ over the past _____ million years Warming, Cooing ; 500
Earth's warming and cooling cycles likely arise from changes in _________ ________ Greenhouse Gases
_________ used to be covered with plant and animal life Antarctica
Soil contains a mixture of _______ and ________ that support plant life Minerals ; Nutrients
Soil surrounds the ______ of plants and provides _______ and _______ Roots ; Support, Nutrients
In respiration, plant roots absorb _______ and release _______ ________ Oxygen ; Carbon Dioxide
______ in the soil allow for the flow of ______ through the soil Pores ; Gases
Soil stores ______ for the plant’s use Water
Plants use water to transport ________, repair _______, regulate _________, and _____________ Nutrients ; Tissue ; Temperature ; Photosynthesize
Plants consume _______ _______ in the soil, which animals then ______ Mineral Nutrients ; Absorb
Nutrient ___________ vary considerably across different ___________ Concentrations ; Ecosystems
An increase in aluminum, hydrogen, and ____________ concentration increases the soil’s ______, creating a ______ environment Manganese ; Acidity ; Toxic
Environmental shortages of certain nutrients restrict the ___________ of specific _______ Establishment ; Species
Soil forms through the __________ of parent material Weathering
____________ weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rock through _________ and _________ induced by temperature changes Mechanical ; Expansions, Contractions
Water, oxygen, and acids ________ weather the material Chemically
The __________ of organic material adds nutrients to the soil Decompositions
Soil formation can take _______ of years Thousands
Different types of soil have significantly different _______ and ________ properties Physical ; Chemical
Soil ____ indicates the composition of the soil Color
Dark soil contains _______ materials, red and brown soil contains _______ _______, purple soil contains ________ _______, and white soil contains ______, ______, ______, and ________ ________ Organic ; Iron Oxide ; Manganese Oxide ; Quarts, Gypsum, Calcium, Magnesium Carbonate
Soil particles vary in size Gravel is larger than ___ mm Sand is between _____ and ___ mm Silt is between _______ and _____ mm Clay is smaller than ______ mm 2 ; 0.05, 2 ; 0.002, 0.05 ; 0.002
Soil _______ measures the proportions of the different particles in soil Texture
Fine soils contain _______ pores, which _______ root growth Smaller ; Inhibit
The presence of _____ increases the amount of water soil can hold Clay
The _______ material, ______, and _________ type control the soil depth Parent ; Slope ; Vegetation
Mountains feature ________ soil, while level ground usually generates ______, _______ soil Shallow ; Thick, Dense
Soil contains _____ distinct orders 12
The ______ ______ shows how soil changes as organic material seeps _____ Soil Profile ; Down
Each layer in the profile constitutes a separate _________ Horizon
The soil horizons are labeled in _______ order Alphabetical
The first horizon is called the ___ horizon, which is followed by the ___, ___, ___, and ___ horizons O ; A ; B ; C ; R
The O Horizon is the surface layer composed of decomposing ______ and ______ Leaves ; Twigs
The A Horizon is topsoil that consists of the _______ _______ as well as ________ materials from the O Horizon Parent Material ; Organic
The B Horizon has _____ organic material, as well as accumulated ______ ______. It is very dense Little ; Mineral Particles
The C Horizon is ____________ material with very little ________ activity Unconsolidated ; Biologic
The R Horizon is called the _______ and consists of solid _______ material Bedrock ; Parent
The _______ of water in an environment determines what plants and animals live there Quantity
_______ and _______ currents control precipitation patterns Ocean ; Atmospheric
Soil ___________ controls how much water remains locked into the ecosystem Absorbency
_______ _______ refers to the flow of excess water over the ground Surface Runoff
Water percolates ___________ through the soil Downwards
____________________ refers to the loss of water through evaporation and transpiration Evapotranspiration
Transpiration is the evaporation of water ______ a plant, through the _______ of the plant Inside ; Surface
The _______ of water affects an organism’s ability to use that water Salinity
Saltwater comprises _______ of all of Earth's water 97%
The ocean’s salinity of around ________ parts per million is _______ at the equator 33-37 ; Highest
Organisms have adapted to soil that is _____ in salt due to it's ______ to salty water High ; Proximity
Plants have adapted to salt by Filtering it out through their roots
Animals have adapted to salt by moving with the tides to remain in environments of equal salinity
Fish have adapted to salt by Filtering it out through their gills
Seabirds have adapted to salt by Excreting it through glands in their nasal cavity
Marine mammals have adapted to salt by Getting hydration from their food, rather than from water
Plants convert sunlight to energy-laden _______ compounds in the process of ___________ Carbon ; Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis involves harnessing sunlight’s _______ to fix carbon into ____________ Energy ; Carbohydrates
The amount of ______ determines an environment’s energy productivity Light
In _________ environments, sunlight penetrates less and less at deeper depths Aquatic
The pattern of light penetration in the ocean is called a ________ ________ of light availability Vertical ; Gradient
Dense forests feature a thick layer of leaves called a _______, that blocks out ______ during the day Canopy ; Light
Deciduous trees in ________ forests lose their leaves in the ________, letting more _______ penetrate through to the forest floor Temperate ; Winter ; Light
There is less ________ during the winter months Daylight
______ ______ form the most common type of environment Water Biomes
Water biomes cover ____ of the earth’s surface 75%
Aquatic biomes come in two categories: _____ ____ and _____ _____ Saltwater ; Freshwater
The ______ ______, also called the water cycle connects the two environments Hydrologic Cycle
It describes the motion of water from the ______ to the ____________ and back Earth ; Atmosphere
Oceans cover ______ of Earth’s surface 71%
Variations in __________, __________, __________, and _________ _________ create multiple marine ecosystems Temperature ; Sunlight ; Substrate ; Water Pressure
The _______ zone refers to the open ocean Pelagic
This is the order of the ocean's layers Sandy Beaches Rocky Intertidal Zones Coral Reefs Pelagic Zone or the Open Ocean Benthic Zone or the Sea Floor
Variations in ______ create separate aquatic habitats based on ______ Light ; Depth
Microscopic _____________ dominate the pelagic zone and concentrate near ____ ________ Phytoplankton ; The Surface
Phytoplankton absorb ________ from the water and feed the rest of the oceanic _______ _______ Nutrients ; Food Chain
Sinking carcasses feed deeper marine __________ Crustaceans
______, ______ ___________, __________, and _______ prey on these decomposers Fish ; Large Crustaceans ; Octopuses ; Squid
The bottom of a body of water forms the _______ _______, which stretches from the rocky intertidal zone to the deep ocean trenches Benthic Zone
Organisms in the Benthic Zone are _________ to study Difficult
________ from upper layers form the base of the benthic food chain Detritus
__________ ________, ________, _____ _________, and _____ ______ feed on detritus or filter nutrients from the water Polychaete Worms ; Crustaceans ; Sea Cucumbers ; Sea Stars
____________ predators emit light to lure prey Bioluminescent
This is where a river meets the ocean ; The salinity depends on the tides ; Organisms that live here include ________ ______, ________, _______, and ________ Estuary ; Juvenile Fish ; Shellfish ; Crabs ; Seagrass
This is an area near the shore that is high in river sediment ; Organisms that live here include ______, ______, ______, and ______ Marsh ; Fish ; Crabs ; Birds ; Mammals
This is where salt-tolerant trees and shrubs anchor sediment on the shore ; Organisms that live here include _______ _______, ______, _______, _______, and _______ Mangroves ; Monitor Lizards ; Monkeys ; Manatees ; Fish ; Birds
No plants live here ; Organisms here such as _____, _________, and __________ ______ feed on tidal plankton and detritus Sandy Beach ; Clams ; Crustaceans ; Polychaete Worms
_______ _______ _______ mark the boundary between the ocean and the beach Rocky Intertidal Zones
________ organisms, like mussels, stay in place as the tides change Sessile, meaning immobile, or fixed in one place
 Mobile organisms like crabs and starfish move to _____ _____ during low tide Tide Pools
Warm shallow coastal areas frequently contain ______ ______ at depths of less than ___ meters Coral Reefs ; 50
Coral reefs form from collections of tiny microorganisms called _____ _____ Coral Polyps
Coral polyps build hard outer skeletons by extracting _______ _______ from the ocean Calcium Carbonate
The solid skeletons of coral polyps __________ as the polyps ____, building the solid structure of the reef Accumulate ; Die
Algae inside coral polyps ____________ energy Photosynthesizes
Coral polyps shelter algae from _______ Predators
___________ environments link terrestrial and marine environments Freshwater
Rivers and streams carry nutrients __________ to the sea Downhill
_______ _______ streams constitute the smallest streams First Order
The merging of two first order streams forms a ______ ______ stream Second Order
The largest classification a river can have is _____ _____. The largest river in the world, the Amazon River, is a ______ ______ stream Twelfth Order ; Twelfth Order
These freshwater bodies are cold and shaded, with limited productivity ; Insects break down organic matter Headwaters
These freshwater bodies have Higher water temperatures, slower current at low elevations, vegetative growth, algae, larvae nesting in plant roots and bottom feeding predators e.g. catfish, suckers Medium Creeks ; Small Rivers
These freshwater bodies have wide channels with high flow volumes ; Sediment deposition on stream floor feeds bottom-dwellers Streams and Rivers
In _______, the fast-moving stream flows over a coarse stream bed Riffles
Swimming organisms occupy the ______ ______ portions of the stream Faster Moving
Invertebrates feed on ______ ______ on the stream bed Dead Matter
Deep, slow moving stretches of a river form _______ Pools
_________ ecosystems exist at the shores of streams and rivers Riparian
Greater _______ _______ leads to profuse and varied vegetation Water Availability
___________ ___________ are covered by shallow water at least seasonally Freshwater Wetlands
_________ ______ encourages submerged water plants, floating vegetation, and cattails Saturated Soil
_____, ________, _________, and ___________ reside in wetlands Fish ; Reptiles ; Mammals ; Invertebrates
Tropical Rainforests have the ________ and ________ climates Tundras have the _________ and ________ climates Deserts have the _______ and _______ climates
Terrestrial biomes are classified according to _______ ______ and the primary form of _____ life Climate Patterns ; Plant
Tropical rainforests near the equator receive over _____ mm of rainfall every year 2000
Because these areas are near the equator, they experience little variation in _________ and _________ Temperature ; Precipitation
Tropical climates allow plants to grow __________ continuously
 Tropical rainforests contain a ______________ amount of the planet’s biodiversity diproportionate
__________ and _________ trees grow here ;  Deciduous trees shed their leaves _______ Evergreen, Deciduous ; Annually
Plants compete for the _______ sunlight under the forest _______ or adapt to require ______ ______ Limited ; Canopy ; Less Light
________ _______ ______ and _______ experience seasonal cycles and a warm climate Seasonal Tropical Forests ; Savannas
Seasonal tropic forests and savannas exist in the Tropics of ________ and _______, the latitudes _____ degrees south and north of the equator Capricorn, Cancer ; 23.5
Rainfall follows ____ and ____ cycles Wet ; Dry
Vegetation adapts to the seasonality with lower _____ _______, shorter ________, seasonal ________, and an abundance of ______ and ______ Tree Densities ; Stature ; Foliage ; Shrubs, Grasses
Fires during the ____ _______ and floods during the ____ _______ create woodlands and savannas Dry Season ; Wet Season
Areas with ____ _________ and long periods without ___________ become hot deserts High Temperatures ; Precipitation
 Succulent plants evolved ______, _______ ______ and _______ to store water Thick, Heavy ; Leaves ; Stems
Some desert animals compress their entire ____ ______ to fit short periods of ____________ Life Cycles ; Precipitation
The world's six largest deserts, in order from largest to smallest
Temperate grasslands experience great __________ in temperature, with freezing _______ and warm, moist _______ Fluctuations ; Winters, Summers
Frequent _____ and ______ by herbivores limits the growth of trees and shrubs Fires ; Grazing
 Temperate areas with _______ winters form shrublands and woodlands Rainy
In temperate areas with rainy winters, since precipitation does not fall during the summer growing season, _______ _______ cannot develop Large Plants
In temperate areas with rainy winters, short evergreens grow _______ due to the dryness of this environment Slowly
The _________ of South Africa and the __________ of North America are coastal shrub lands Fynbos ; Chaparrals
 Inland shrub lands lie behind _________ ________ which suck moisture from the air Mountain Ranges
The ________, ________ ________, and ________ ________ ring North America’s Great Basin Cascades ; Sierra Nevada ; Rocky Mountains
_________ _________ forests exist in areas with prolonged winters Temperate Deciduous
 Trees cannot _________ efficiently in long periods of cold and therefore shed their leaves Photosynthesize
 A long growing season in spring and summer allows ________ regrowth Foliage
 Deciduous forests occur in _________ _________ and __________ North America ; Eurasia
In a temperate deciduous forests, a sub canopy of _______, _______, and _______ _______ lies below the upper canopy Shrubs ; Ferns ; Smaller Trees
These forests grow in a variety of climates Temperate Evergreen
 In dry areas of evergreen forests, forest fires every ____ to ____ years prevent the development of ______ ________ 10 ; 20 ; New Species
 The _______ _______ of evergreen trees prevent other plants from growing near them Acidic Leaves
 Evergreen trees include ______, ______, _______, and ________ Pines ; Firs ; Hemlocks ; Junipers
________ ________ grow in temperatures which remain below freezing for most of the year Boreal Forest
These forests grow above 50° N Boreal Forests
The cold climate above 50° N can lower the ____ ___________ to -50° C and freeze the _____ Air Temperature ; Soil
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