Biology 120

Ellie Langer
Flashcards by Ellie Langer, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellie Langer
Created by Ellie Langer almost 5 years ago


Flash cards for Biology 120 Final based on lecture notes, OLI, and my notes from textbook

Resource summary

Question Answer
7 Properties of Life 1. Displays order 2. Harnesses & Utilizes Energy 3. Reproduces 4. Responds to Stimuli 5. Exhibits Homeostasis 6. Grows & Develops 7. Evolves
Size of a cell 1-100 micrometres (10^-6 m)
Inventor of Mircoscope Zacharias JENSEN
Discovered Cells Robert Hooke
Father of Microbiology Anton van Leeuwenhoek
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover Protists "Little Animalcules"
What did Robert Hook discover The Nucleus
What theory replaced the Theory of Spontaneous Generation All cells come from pre-existing cells
Who discovered that both plant and animal are made of cells Mathias Schleiden & Theodore Schwann
Who put forth the theory that all cells come from pre-existing cells Rudolph Virchow
3 Types of Microscopy 1. Optical 2. (Transmission) Electron 3. Scanning Electron - 3D
Magnification Ratio between size of image and actual size of object
Resolution Ability to observe 2 adjacent objects as distinct from each other
Contrast How different one structure looks from another
Theory of Cells 1. all cells come from pre-existing cells 2. fill in later
Fermentation: aerobic or anaerobic anaerobic
Who first broke the yeast cell & what did he discover Marcelin Berthelot & Invertase work even when cell is dead
Invertase Enzyme that converts sucrose to fructose and glucose
Protein that ferments sugar into Ethanol in Yeast Zymase
4 basic types of Organic molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
Which basic organic molecule isn't a polymer Lipids
Largest mass of nutrients on the plant cellulose
Largest polymer of Glucose used by animals Glycogen
2 Main reserves of Glycogen Liver for blood Muscle for brain
Direction that DNA and RNA are built 5' to 3'
Central Theory of Molecular Biology 1. DNA stores genetic material and synthesize itself 2. RNA transcribed from DNA 3. RNA used to build proteins (translate Nucleic Acids to Amino Acids)
Lipids tend to be Hydro____ or __________________ Hydrophobic or Non-polar
Phospholipid are (water vs oil) Amphipathetic one end hydrophobic & other end hydrophiliac
Cellular structures made of Phospholipids & why membranes tails attract each other (hydrophiliac) & Head on outside repel water
Why are cells small 1. easier to replace w/o loss of function 2. larger surface area to volume ratio (higher metabolism possible)
Key difference between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Eukaryotes have & Prokaryotes don't 1. nucleus 2. lots of organelles 3. multiple chromosomes
Subcellular Fractionation Use a centrifuge to break a cell & separate out organelles
Source of Mitochondrial DNA Mom only
How ions & polar molecules & large molecules pass through cell membrane transport protein channels
Eukaryotes evolved from Union of a protist cell and a bacteria cell
Mitochondria evolved from Aerobic Bacteria
Chloroplasts evolved from Cyanobacteria
Most Cellular activity occurs in Cytoplasm
Role of Cytoskeleton 1. Give shape and mechanical resistance to deformation 2. enable cell to move [contraction & cytokinesis]
3 types of Fibres in Cytoskeleton 1. Microfilament 2. Micro tubules 3. Intermediate filaments
2 Roles of Microfilaments 1. contract cell 2. Cytokinesis
2 Roles of Micro tubules 1. Form spindle 2. Structure in flagella and cilia that allows locomotion
3 layers of Nuclear Envelope 2 membranes and lamins network just beside inner membrane
3 Common shapes for Prokaryotes 1. Spherical - Cocci 2. Rod-like - Bacilli 3. Spiral - Spirochetes
Role of Ribosomes Build Protein from Amino Acids
Shape of Prokaryote DNA Circle
Describe a Prokaryote cell wall Rigid & coated in glycocalyx
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