Science - Semester 1 Final

jtriplett514
Flashcards by jtriplett514, updated more than 1 year ago
jtriplett514
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Earth Science

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Developed the first theory of continental drift. Alfred Wegener
German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred Wegener
What is the hypothesis of Continental Drift? The continents had once formed a single landmass, called Pangaea, before breaking apart and drifting to their present locations.
The continents in the southern hemisphere exhibit an identical pattern of rock and fossils known as the "Gondwana sequence. Evidence of Continental Drift
The glacial till deposits in the southern hemisphere. With the continents in their present positions, the till deposits indicate erratic glacier motion. Evidence of Continental Drift
What lead to the renaming of Continental Drift? The discovery of thermal convection which is causes repeated heating and cooling results in a current which may be enough to cause continents to move.
3 types of Plate Tectonic Boundaries convergent, divergent, or transform
Divergent Boundary When two tectonic plates move away from each other.
Convergent Boundary When two plates come together.
Transform Plate Boundary Two plates sliding past each other.
Results from a Divergent Boundary 1. Lava spews from long fissures and geysers spurt superheated water. 2. Frequent earthquakes strike along the rift. 3. Beneath the rift, magma—molten rock—rises from the mantle. 4. It oozes up into the gap and hardens into solid rock, forming new crust on the torn edges of the plates. 5. Magma from the mantle solidifies into basalt. 6. Oceanic crust, made of basalt, is created.
Results from a Convergent Boundary 1.The impact of the two colliding plates buckles the edge of one or both plates up into a rugged mountain range, and sometimes bends the other down into a deep seafloor trench. 2.A chain of volcanoes often forms parallel to the boundary, to the mountain range, and to the trench. 3. Powerful earthquakes shake a wide area on both sides of the boundary. 4. If one of the colliding plates is topped with oceanic crust, it is forced down into the mantle where it begins to melt. 5. Magma rises into and through the other plate, solidifying into new crust. 6. Magma formed from melting plates solidifies into granite, a light colored, low-density rock that makes up the continents. 7. Thus at convergent boundaries, continental crust, made of granite, is created, and oceanic crust is destroyed.
Results from a Transform Plate Boundary 1. Natural or human-made structures that cross a transform boundary are offset—split into pieces and carried in opposite directions. 2. Rocks that line the boundary are pulverized as the plates grind along, creating a linear fault valley or undersea canyon. 3. As the plates alternately jam and jump against each other, earthquakes rattle through a wide boundary zone. 4. In contrast to convergent and divergent boundaries, no magma is formed. 5. Crust is cracked and broken at transform margins, but is not created or destroyed.
Divergent
Convergent Boundary
Transform Plate Boundary
Convergent Boundary
Divergent Boundary
Transform Plate Boundary
What is San Andreas Fault an example of? Transform Boundary
What are the Himalayas an example of? Convergent Boundary
What are the Southern Alps an example of? Convergent Boundary
The Andes are an example of? Convergent Boundary
A mid-ocean ridge is an example of? Divergent Boundary
Name the 4 layers of the Earth. Inner Core Outer Core Mantle Crust
Earthquakes are created within which type of boundary? Transform Plate Boundary
What occurs in a normal fault? The block above the fault moves down relative to the block below the fault. This fault motion is caused by tensional forces and results in extension.
What occurs in a reverse fault? The block above the fault moves up relative to the block below the fault. This fault motion is caused by compressional forces and results in shortening.
What occurs in a strike-slip fault? The movement of blocks along a fault is horizontal. If the block on the far side of the fault moves to the left, the fault is called left-lateral. If the block on the far side moves to the right, the fault is called right-lateral. The fault motion of a strike-slip fault is caused by shearing forces.
What occurs in a transform fault? A transform fault is a type of strike-slip fault wherein the relative horizontal slip is accommodating the movement between two ocean ridges or other tectonic boundaries.
What is the difference between Primary waves & Secondary waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
What kinds of materials can a P wave travel through? Solid, Liquid, or Gas
What kinds of materials can a S wave travel through? Only Solids
Which type of wave is larger? S wave
Which type of wave causes more damage? S wave. They move the earth around them with greater force, and are able to actually shake the surface of the earth. P waves, though easier to record, are significantly smaller and do not cause as much damage because they compress particles in only one direction.
What is the Shadow Zone? The shadow zone is the area of the earth from angular distances of 104 to 140 degrees from a given earthquake that does not receive any direct P waves. The shadow zone results from S waves being stopped entirely by the liquid core and P waves being bent (refracted) by the liquid core.
We understand the outer core to be ____________ based on our knowledge of P & S waves. Liquid
How many seismic stations are necessary to locate an earthquake epicenter? 3
A resource that can be renewed as quickly as it is used up and can, in theory, last indefinitely. Renewable Resource
A natural resource that replaces itself unless overused, e.g. animal or plant life or fresh water Renewable Resource
A source of alternative energy, e.g. sunlight, wind, or waves Renewable Resource
What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources? Renewable resources are able to be renewed faster as non-renewable resources may run out.
Examples of renewable resources. solar, hydro electric, wind
Examples of non-renewable resources. Fossil fuels, coal, oil
Where do fossil fuels come from? Organic material
The difference between conservation and recycling. Conservation is to conserve resources while recycling is giving back resources.
What are the affects of mining on the landscape? Mining can be harmful by killing grass and polluting the air.
What is mechanical weathering? The breakdown of rocks and minerals by physical agents such as frost, wind, and tree roots, with no chemical alteration
What is chemical weathering? The erosion or disintegration of rocks, building materials, etc., caused by chemical reactions
What is the difference between chemical and mechanical weathering? Chemical weathering demands chemical reactions with minerals inside the rock and causes changes in rock composition. Sometimes this process will produce a different kind of product due to the reaction. Mechanical weathering only involves the physical breakage of rocks to smaller pieces of fragments. Without changing the physical composition of the rocks, mechanical weathering disintegrates rocks with nature’s own physical pressures.
What are the types of mechanical weathering? organic matter, ice wedging, and abrasion
When 2 plates collide, one normally slides underneath. Why does this occur? In a subduction zone of a convergent boundary, the subducting plate, which is normally a plate with oceanic crust, moves beneath the other plate, which can be made of either oceanic or continental crust. Where a dense oceanic plate collides with a less-dense continental plate, the oceanic plate is typically thrust underneath because of the greater buoyancy of the continental lithosphere, forming a subduction zone.
Where are deep sea trenches located? Why do they exist? They typically form in locations where one tectonic plate subducts under another on a convergent boundary. That is where a lithospheric plate bearing oceanic crust slides down into the upper mantle under the force of gravity. The result is a topographic depression where the oceanic plate comes in contact with the overriding plate, which may be either oceanic or continental creating a deep sea trench.
What is Paleomagnitism? The magnetism in rocks that was induced by the earth's magnetic field.
What happens to the age of the seafloor as you move away from the boundary towards the coast? The age of the seafloor is progressively older away from mid-ocean ridges.
Non-renewable resources are mainly derived from what? Fossil Fuels
What is a benefit of Ur (nuclear energy) being used in a nuclear reactor over other non-renewable resources? It takes a long time to burn and gives a lot of power.
What kind of climate, year round average, would most likely benefit most by investing in solar power? Desert
How can reducing electricity in your home also reduce pollution and save money? Reducing electricity in the home reduces pollution since we are not burning coal that has gases releasing in the atmosphere. Using a renewable resource such as solar saves the consumer money because it is renewable and everywhere.
The different types of volcanoes. Shield cinder cone composite
Where are shield volcanoes located? Shield volcanoes are located near water and are not explosive inless water gets through the vent.
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