Bio final

Cooper Kane
Flashcards by Cooper Kane, updated more than 1 year ago
Cooper Kane
Created by Cooper Kane over 5 years ago


this took to long to make so appreciate it pls

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is the literal translation of the word biology? Study of life
What is a cell? Smallest unit that can carry on the processes of life
What is the difference between an organism classified as unicellular and one classified as multicellular? Unicellular is a single cell, Multicellular has two or more cells
List in order from simplest to most complex, the levels of organization in multicellular organisms Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things? The sun
What is an autotroph? A self-feeding organism
What is the literal translation for autotroph? Self consumer
What is a heterotroph? an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances
What is the literal translation for heterotroph? Different consumer
What is the literal translation for photosynthesis? Light putting together
Write the balanced equation for photosynthesis
What is a response? A reaction to a stimulus
What are the two ways living things grow? Cell division & Cell enlargement
Which characteristic of life is not essential for an individual? Reproduction
What is asexual reproduction? Process in which an organism produces a new organism identical to itself
What is sexual reproduction? Two cells unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
What is an adaptation? Traits that give an organism an advantage in an environment
What is metabolism? The sum of all the chemical operations (processes) underway in the body
What are the two parts of metabolism? Anabolism & catabolism
What is anabolism? Synthesizing complex substances
What is catabolism? Breaking down complex substances
What is absorption? An organisms need for energy makes it necessary for them to absorb materials from the environment
Write the balanced equation for cellular respiration
What is excretion? Removing waste
What are the six steps to the scientific method (in order)? 1. Observe/state a problem 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Experiment: materials and procedure 4. Collect and analyze data 5. Draw conclusions 6. Replicate your work
Observing Using one or more of the five senses to perceive objects or events
Hypothesizing Forming testable statements about observable phenomena
Predicting Stating in advance the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis
Experimenting Testing a hypothesis or prediction by carrying out data gathering procedures
Measuring Determining the dimensions of an object, number of objects
Collecting data Gathering and recording of specific information based on observations
Organizing data Placing observations and measurements in some kind of logical order
Classifying Grouping objects, organisms, or phenomenon
Modeling Helps show relationships between data
Analyzing data Determining whether data re reliable and whether they support or refute a given prediction or hypothesis
Inferring Drawing conclusions on the basis or premises instead of direct perception
Communicating Allows scientists to build on the work of others
What is a hypothesis? A testable statement
Identify the scientific units of measuring for the following: 1. Length 2. Mass 3. Volume 4. Time 5. Temperature 1. Meter 2. Gram 3. Liter 4. Seconds/hours 5. Celsius
what are four (different) ways data can be organized? 1. Chart 2. Table 3. Graph 4. Model
What are the six kingdoms in modern classification? 1. Plant 2. Animal 3. Fungi 4. Archaebacteria 5. Eubacteria 6. Protists
What is a theory? Most probable explanation for a set of data based on the best available evidence; Explains WHY things happen
What is a law? General statement that describes a wide variety of phenomenon; Explains HOW things happen
Eyepiece Look through to view the specimen
Ocular lens Magnifies
Arm Main upright support for the microscope
Base Main support for microscope
Stage Holds the specimen
Iris diaphragm Regulates the amount of light that passes through the stage
Stage clips Holds the specimen in place
Light source Focuses light through the specimen to the lens
Objective lenses Magnifies the specimen 1. Scanning-4x 2. Low power-10x 3. High power-40x 4. Oil immersion
Revolving nosepiece Holds two or more objective lenses and can be turned easily
Coarse adjustment knob Brings the specimen closer or father away from the lens
Fine adjustment knob Fine tunes the focus of the lens
How is total magnification determined? Objective lens x Ocular lens
What are the three rules for properly carrying a microscope? 1. Hold it against your body 2. Use one hand to hold the base 3. Use the other hand to hold the arm
The iris diaphragm functions like what eye structure? Pupil
What is magnification? The enlargement of an object
What is resolution? A microscopes power to show detail clearly
What is diffraction? Bending of light waves
What is the relationship between magnification and field of view? As magnification increases, FOV decreases
What is centrifugation? Separating cells by spinning fractionated cells at high speeds
What is electrophoresis? Separating DNA on the basis of their electrical charge and size
What is cell culturing? Growing a population of identical cells in the laboratory
What is chromatography? Separating chemical components of a substance by passing them through a piece of paper or a column of beads
What is a characteristic of organic molecules? Contains carbon (carbon backbone), derived from living things
What is characteristics of inorganic molecules? No carbon, derived from non-living things
What is the general equation for a condensation reaction? monomer + monomer = polymer + H2O
What is the general equation for a hydrolysis reaction? polymer + H2O = monomer + monomer
What is a polymer? Many units formed by monomers
What is a monomer? One unit, makes up compounds
What are the monomers of lipids? Fatty acids
What are the monomers of proteins? Amino acids
What are the monomers of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides
What are the monomers of nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What are the polymers of lipids? Triglycerides
What are the polymers of proteins? Peptides
What are the polymers of carbohydrates? Polysaccharides, glycogen, starch
What are the polymers of nucleic acids? DNA/RNA
What characteristic is used to identify a substance as being polar? Uneven charge
What are isomers? Compounds with the same structure, but not molecular composition
What are the two parts of a solution? Solute & solvent
What is Robert Hooke's "claim to fame"? Came up with the word cell
What is a prokaryotic cell? A cell without a nucleus
What is a eukaryotic cell? A cell with a nucleus
What three scientists made major contributions to the cell theory? 1. Schleiden 2. Schwann 3. Virchow
What are the three parts to the cell theory? 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells come only from other cells 3. Cells are organisms' basic structure and function
Nucleus Nucleic acid synthesis; directs the cells functions
Cell membrane Lets certain things in or out of the cell
Ribosomes Protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum Transports molecules from one part of the cell to another
Golgi apparatus Processes, packages, and secretes
Mitochondria Cellular respiration; powerhouse of the cell
Lysosomes Early development
Microtubules/microfilaments Shape and support for cells; forms cytoskeleton
Cilia/flagella Movement
Cell wall Protects cell
Vacuole Stores enzymes and waste products
Plastids Convert solar energy to chemical energy
What does permeable mean? Lets in any material
What does semi-permeable Allows some materials in but not others
Bio Life
Ology Study of
Hetero Different
Homo Same
Photo Light
Syn Put together
Troph Consumer
A/an Without
Cyte Cell
Uni One
Multi Many
Auto Self
Poly Many
Uni One
Bi One
Lysis Break apart
Fission Split
Micro Small
Hypo Under/low
Hyper High
Iso Equal
Hydro Water
Phobic Not attracted to; fearing
Philic Attracted to; loving
Endo Inside; within
Exo Outside
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