Biomolecules

Deja Martin
Flashcards by Deja Martin, updated more than 1 year ago
Deja Martin
Created by Deja Martin over 5 years ago
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Flashcards on Biomolecules, created by Deja Martin on 12/13/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the functions of nucleic acids? 1. Gene expression 2. Encodes genes 3. Info storage - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 4. Protein synthesis - RNA (ribonucleic acid) 5. Energy transfers - ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)
What are the functions of proteins? 1. Structural components in cells 2. Mechanical functions in muscles (contraction) 3. Immune response 4. Cell signaling 5. Proteins make up skin, hair, nails, muscles, and enzymes
What is protein's monomer? Amino acids (20 in ppl, varies by R group)
What is nucleic acid's polymer? DNA and RNA DNA - double helix RNA - single stranded
What is nucleic acid's monomer? Nucleotide - 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
What is protein's polymer? Polypeptide (several amino acids joined by peptide bonds)
What does protein compound of? CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
What are examples of proteins? Collagen, hemoglobin
What are the functions of a carb's polysaccharides? 1. Cellulose - cell wall 2. Glycogen - stores energy in liver and muscle cells 3. Chitin - armor and cell wall in insects and crustaceans 4. Starch - plant polysaccharide storage
What are the characteristics of lipids? 1. Do not form large polymers 2. Waxy and oily 3. Hydrophobic
What are the monomers of carbohydrates? 1. Glucose (blood sugar, immediate energy) 2. Galactose (sugar in milk and yogurt) 3. Fructose (sugar in milk and honey)
What are the functions of lipids? 1. Long term energy storage 2. Insulation 3. Major components of membranes (phospholipid) 4. Hormones 5. Protection against water loss
What are the functions of carbohydrates? 1. Provide energy 2. Cell wall 3. Structural support 4. Cell recognition
What are the polymers of carbohydrates? 1. Disaccharides and polysaccharides 2. Polysaccharides: starch in plants, glycogen in animal cells, cellulose - cell wall, chitin - insects
What is the ratio of a carbohydrate? 1:2:1 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What are the characteristics of saturated fats? Bad, solid, dairy
What are steroids? Body stuff - hormones, estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D, etc.
What are the characteristics of unsaturated fats? Good, liquid, oils
What do lipids have a higher ratio of? Lipids have a higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen to oxygen than carbs
Starch Amylose
What do lipids contain? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What are nucleotides made of? 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
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