1.2 - Ultrastructure of cells - Key terms

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International Baccalaureate Biology (1 - Cell Biology) Flashcards on 1.2 - Ultrastructure of cells - Key terms, created by Ella-mentary on 01/15/2016.

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Question Answer
Compartmentalisation Dividing the cytoplasm into membrane-bound organelles.
Prokaryotes Cells with a simple cell structure, without membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotes Cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Light microscope Microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object.
Electron microscope Microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen.
Ultrastructure The detailed structure of the internal components of cells as revealed by the electron microscope.
Organelles A structure within a cell with a specialised function.
Resolution of a microscope The ability to distinguish two adjacent objects as separate and distinct.
Binary fission A form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells.
Pili Structure on the surface of prokaryotes used to attach to each other and other surfaces.
Flagella A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many prokaryotes have flagella.
Nucleiod Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located.
Cytoplasm A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Ribosome A cell organelle; the site of protein synthesis.
Nucleus An organelle surrounded by a double membrane that contains DNA.
Plasma membrane A thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cell wall A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and prokaryotes.
Mitochondria A membrane bound organelle in eukaryote cells; the site of aerobic respiration.
Chloroplast A membrane bound organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Pallisade mesophyll Rectangular shaped cells in leaves with many chloroplasts; specialised for photosynthesis.
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