OTSBACT

Derek James
Flashcards by Derek James, updated more than 1 year ago
Derek James
Created by Derek James over 4 years ago
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OTEBACT
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STAPHYLOCOCCUS Key Features •Large, aerobic gram-positive cocci •Commensals of skin and exposed mucosa of animals and humans •Robust, survive well in envmt •Numerous spp, most non-pathogenic; some host specificity •Opportunist pathogens causing pyogenic infections
Staphylococcus aureus (1-OPP-Z) •Pyogenic opportunist infections: •Pus and local necrosis •Skin and wound infections**** •Localized infections**, tendency to bacteremia (abscesses) •Urinary tract infections in dogs, cats •Mastitis – bovine*** •Contagious and often “hospital infections”
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (1-OPP-Z) •“the S. aureus of the dog” - opportunist pathogen of dogs •Recent emergence of MRSP in dogs – resistant to practically everything!
Staphylococcus hyicus •Greasy-pig disease: exudative epidermitis of newborn pigs
Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and most other antibacterial drugs Slightly more virulent than non-MRSA 1-2% people colonized MRSA Emerging now in animals Hospitals have the most incidence, then the community, then companion animals, then production animals
STREPTOCOCCUS •Chains in clinical samples •Commensals of mucous membranes of humans and animals (not usually skin) •Do NOT survive well in environment •Relatively fastidious •Pyogenic infections •Host specificity****
Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus •Opportunist pathogen of horses & other spp cause purulent infections in horses •Upper resp tract infections, “mild strangles”, pneumonia, abscesses, wounds, urogenital tract, mastitis etc Foal septicaemia & sequelae, no colostrum Role as primary pathogen underestimated
Streptococcus equi subspecies equi •Strangles in horses: highly contagious, pharyngitis & assoc lymphadenitis •Transmitted by discharge of dz & infected guttural pouch carriers •Tx/prevention: iso'n, quar'n, cleaning, disinf'n, early treatment w penicillin Vaccines avail, none perfect. Long-lasting not always complete immunity after inf'n
Streptococcus canis (2-OPP) •Opportunistic purulent infections of dogs & cats •Beta-hemolytic, group G •Minor pathogen: urogenital infections, mastitis, wound infections, otitis externa •Toxic shock syndrome & necrotizing fasciitis
Streptococcus agalactiae (2-PR) •Group B, CAMP-positive •Practically disappeared •Agent of neonatal septicaemia in humans (not from cows)
ENTEROCOCCI 2-OPP Normal intestinal flora Most important are E. faecalis & E. faecium True opportunists; Diverse inf's: mastitis, wound infections, UTI, 2º inf'n, nosocomial Naturally resistant to many antimicro agents, esp. E. faecium; Freq' acq'd resist Problem in human & some vet hospitals “VRE”: superbugs; part of ESKAPE group
Nosocomial Refers to an disease acquired in hospital
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