MR BRYANT AMERICAN NATION FINAL FLASHCARDS

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FINAL TERMS

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Impeachment formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Cuban Missile Crisis 14-day confrontation in October 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other side.
Partial Nuclear Test ban treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.
President John F Kennedy 35th President of the United States, serving from January 1961 until he was assassinated in November 1963.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution A joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.
war on poverty This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent.
Freedom Rides civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961.
Dr Martin Luther king JR was an American clergyman, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.
Voting rights act of 1965 is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting.
Counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
Norma McCorvey was the plaintiff in the landmark American lawsuit Roe v. Wade in 1973.
Malcolm Little was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Judge Alcee Hastings He is a member of the Democratic Party. He served as a Judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida from 1979 until his impeachment and removal from that post in 1989, and is one of only eight federal officials in American history to be impeached and removed from office.
Fidel Castro Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008.
Tactical Nuclear Weapon also known as non-strategic nuclear weapon, refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations.
Domino Theory It was promoted at times by the United States government and speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Lee Harvey Oswald according to five government investigations, the sniper who assassinated John F. Kennedy
Barry Goldwater was a businessman and five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for president in the 1964 election.
Kent State University Kent State gained international attention on May 4, 1970, when an Ohio Army National Guard unit fired at students during an anti-war protest on campus, killing four and wounding nine.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
Michael Schwerner was one of three Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) field workers killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to their civil rights work, which included promoting voting registration among Mississippi African Americans.
Hippies subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
My Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by the U.S. Army soldiers
Black Panther party was a black revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982.
New Frontier was used by liberal, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedyas the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him.
Bay of Pigs is an inlet of the Gulf of Cazones located on the southern coast of Cuba.
Hot Line point-to-point communications link in which a call is automatically directed to the preselected destination without any additional action by the user when the end instrument goes off-hook
Ngo Dinh Diem was the first president of South Vietnam (1955–1963).
Gulf Of Tonkin is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China.
viet cong was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War (1959–1975), and emerged on the winning side.
Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States first announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University, then at University of Michigan, and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s
Boynton vs. Virginia was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The case overturned a judgment convicting an African American law student for trespassing by being in a restaurant in a bus terminal which was "whites only".
James Meredith an American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser. In 1962, he was the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi
James Chaney was one of three American civil rights workers who were murdered during Freedom Summer by members of the Ku Klux Klan
Andrew Goodman was one of three American civil rights activists murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, during Freedom Summer in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Roe vs. Wade is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. Decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion,
Lt. William Calley is a convicted American war criminal and a former U.S. Army officer found guilty of murder for his role in the My Lai Massacre
Nation of Islam syncretic new religious movement founded in Detroit, Michigan by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930. The Nation of Islam's stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity.
Richard M Nixon 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974, when he became the only president to resign the office.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration during the Vietnam War to end the U.S.' involvement in the war and "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops
Daniel Ellsberg former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
war powers act is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress.
John Ehrlichman was counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon. He was a key figure in events leading to the Watergate first break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal
H.R. Bob Haldeman was an American political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and his consequent involvement in the Watergate scandal.
Yom Kippur War was a war fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.
OPEC Nations an oil cartel whose mission is to coordinate the policies of the oil-producing countries.
deep throat the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post in 1972 about the involvement of United States President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal.
gerald ford was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and prior to this, was the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974
Interest rate the rate at which interest is paid by a borrower (debtor) for the use of money that they borrow from a lender
environmental protection agency an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
Reagonomics refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s and still widely practiced.
clean air act United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
George wallace was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat
Peace with Honor was a phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech on January 23, 1973 to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.
John Dean served as White House Counsel for United States President Richard Nixon from July 1970 until April 1973. In this position, he became deeply involved in events leading up to the Watergate burglaries and the subsequent Watergate scandal cover-up.
Leonid Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.
Water Gate affair political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.
Carl Bernstein an American investigative journalist and author. Along with Bob Woodward at The Washington Post, he did the majority of the most important news reporting on the Watergate scandal.
Mark Felt was an agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), who retired as the Bureau's Associate Director in 1973. After denying his involvement with reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein for 30 years, Felt revealed himself to be the Watergate scandal's whistleblower, "Deep Throat,"
Jimmy Carter an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States
Iranian Embassy Hostages was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two Americans were held hostage for 444 days, after a group of Iranian students supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the US Embassy in Tehran.
Affirmative Action refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin"[1] into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business"
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty were two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control.
New right used in several countries as a descriptive term for various policies or groups that are right-wing.
Pentagon Papers United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
Egil Krogh American lawyer who became famous as an official of the Richard Nixon administration, and who was imprisoned for his part in the Watergate scandal.
john mitchell one of Nixon's closest personal friends; after his tenure as Attorney General, he served as director of Nixon's 1972 presidential campaign. Due to his involvement in the Watergate affair, he was sentenced to prison in 1977, serving 19 months.
CREEP was a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration. Besides its re-election activities, CRP employed money laundering and slush funds and was directly and actively involved in the Watergate scandal.
Bob Woodward an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author. He has worked for The Washington Post since 1971 as a reporter, and is now an associate editor of the Post.
Spiro Agnew Agnew was investigated by the United States Attorney's office for the District of Maryland, on charges of extortion, tax fraud, bribery, and conspiracy.
Inflation Rates inflation is a persistent increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Ronald Reagan was the 40th President of the United States
AIDS disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus
George H.W. Bush is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States
Mikhail Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the country's head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991.
Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
strategic defense initiative proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983,[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
Camp David Accords signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
Shangri La fictional place described in the 1933 novel Lost Horizon by British author James Hilton.
Sandinistas a social democratic[2][3] political party in Nicaragua. Its members are called Sandinistas in both English and Spanish.
Grenada an island country and commonwealth realm consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea.
Cold War was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.
Intermediate nuclear forces treaty treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges
commonwealth of independent states a regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
globalization the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.
world trade organization an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade.
Kyoto Protocol an international treaty that sets binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
desert storm a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Glasnost a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
Menachem Begin was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel.
Hosni Mubarak former Egyptian President, leader and military commander. He served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
Lee Greenwood best known for his single "God Bless the USA", which was popular when it was originally released in 1984
Boland Amendment was the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting U.S. government assistance to the Contras in Nicaragua.
nuclear freeze movement eliminating nuclear weapons and to the end state of a nuclear-weapon-free world, in which nuclear weapons are completely eliminated.
reykjavik, iceland The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's new-found international status.
group of seven group consisting of the finance ministers of seven developed nations: the U.S., U.K., France, Germany, Italy, Canada and Japan. They are the seven wealthiest developed nations on Earth by global net wealth.
multinational corporations hard to define precisely to obtain consensus from different professions.
european union economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[
stormin norman schwarzkopf was a United States Army general. While serving as Commander-in-Chief, United States Central Command, he led all coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War.
Detente meaning "relax", is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
evil empire first applied to the Soviet Union in 1983 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who took an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the Soviet Union's strategic and global military capabilities
star wars to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
Anwar Sadat the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Camp David country retreat of the President of the United States.
god bless the USA American patriotic song written and recorded by country music artist Lee Greenwood.
Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing the Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua that were active from 1979 through to the early 1990s.
Qaddafi was a Libyan revolutionary and politician, and the de facto ruler of Libya for 42 years.
the day after American television film that aired on November 20, 1983, on the ABC television network
lech walesa he co-founded Solidarity (Solidarność), the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland between 1990 and 1995.
solidarity unity (as of a group or class) that produces or is based on community of interests, objectives, and standards.
Boris Yeltsin was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
G8 a forum for the governments of eight of the world's largest national economies as nominal GDP with higher Human Development Index
NAFTA an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral rules-based trade bloc in North America.
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