Semester One AP United States History

Megan Lynn
Flashcards by Megan Lynn, updated more than 1 year ago
Megan Lynn
Created by Megan Lynn over 5 years ago
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Flashcards on Semester One AP United States History, created by Megan Lynn on 12/15/2014.
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Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth
Alamo A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican forces
Andrew Johnson 17th president of the United States, A southerner from Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became President. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
Battle of Gettysburg Turning point of the war that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North
Black codes Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Bleeding Kansas A series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would be a slave state or a free state
California Gold Rush in 1849 when gold was discovered in California which attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.
Californios Descendants of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California
Carpetbaggers A northern who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Charles Sumner Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him
Chinese Exclusion Act Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
Civil War An American war between the Northern states and 11 Southern states, which seceded from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. The major issues that led to the war were slavery and states' rights. the confederacy lost the war, and the Southern states returned to the United States
Compromise of 1850 Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act, banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican cession
Confederate States of America a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
Conscription A forced enlistment of citizens of a country to fight for their country
Credit Mobilier This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using government funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
Crittenden Compromise attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden who offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36 30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves and was defeated by Republicans
Dred Scott Case 1857 Supreme court case that developed the fact that slaves were property not persons entitled to constitutional rights. It was the second Supreme Court decision to declare a law unconstitutional
Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Fifteenth Amendment 1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Fire-eaters refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America
Forty-Niners Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
Fourteenth Amendment A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
Free-soil movement opposed the expansion of slavery in new states (particularly out west); subcategory of the Republican party who were also abolitionist; popular during the late antebellum period; Abraham Lincoln was the most influential person of this political party
Freedman's Bureau Organization created at the end of the Civil War that aided southerns (mainly former slaves) with education, finding food, shelter and employment
Gadsden Purchase purchase by the United States of southwestern lands from Mexico
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Mexican General who trued to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War
George McClellan A major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Chronically underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign and was fired.
Greenbacks Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war
Habeas Corpus A court order requiring authorities to bring a prisoner before the court so that the court can determine whether the prisoner is being held legally.
Harpers Ferry John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Hiram Revels A clergyman and teacher who became the nation's first black senator in 1870. He completed the term of Jefferson Davis.
James Buchanan The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between pro-slavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
James K. Polk 11th President of the United States from Tennessee; committed to westward expansion; led the country during the Mexican War; U.S. annexed Texas and took over Oregon during his administration
Jefferson Davis An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
John Brown Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
John C. Fremont 1856 Republican presidential nominee; platform called for no expansion of slavery, free homesteads, and a probusiness protective tariff
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Know-nothing party A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
Ku Klux Klan A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Liberal Republicans A group of Republicans for reform; they vouched for purification of the administration in Washington, and argued against military Reconstruction
Manifest Destiny A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
Mexican Cession 1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles
Mexican-American War (1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
multiple causation the belief that an event occurs as a result of several factors working in combination
Nativism A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Oregon Trail 2000 mile long path along which thousands of Americans journeyed to the Willamette Valley in the 1840's.
Oregon Treaty Negotiation of the border between Oregon and Canada; Americans wanted it at 54º40' (slogan became "Fiftyfour forty or fight!"); eventually was put at the 49th parallel
Popular Sovereignty A belief that ultimate power resides in the people
Presentism 1) All reality is contained in the present. A list of things that are (part of reality in the broadest sense) will not include events entirely in the past or future
Radical Republicans After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Reconstruction the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 created five military districts, required Congressional approval for new state consitutions, Confederate states give voting rights to all men, and former Confederate states must approve the 14th amendment
Republican party 1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
Robert E. Lee American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
Sam Houston Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas
Sand Creek Massacre (1864) U.S. Army's killing of about 150 Cheyenne elderly, women and children at the Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado Territory.
Scalawag A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Scorched-earth campaign 1. U.S. attacks into the countryside where entire villages were burned and destroyed 72. Secession: Formal withdrawal of a state from the Union. South threatened to do this many times and finally would in 1861.
Second Party System The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
Sharecropping A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Sherman's March to the Sea After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to Savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st Alabama cavalry regiment.
Stephen Douglas Senator from Illinois, author of the KansasNebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836) In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan independence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution.
synthesis the combination of parts to make a whole
Tejanos Mexican residents of Texas. Many fought with the Americans in the Revolution, but after Texas was independent, the Americans didn't trust them. The Americans feared they were spies and drove many out of Texas.
Ten Percent Plan Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government afetr ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Texas Annexation Americans moved to Texas territory and became unhappy with their rule. The revolted and won independence.
Thirteenth Amendment 1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery
Total war A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo : (1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected
Wade-Davis Bil 1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
William Tecumseh Sherman 2nd most important Union General who introduced total war in "the march to the sea." He destroyed crops, towns, and farms everywhere he went.
Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)
Winfield Scott "Old Fuss and Feathers," whose conquest of Mexico City brought U.S. victory in the Mexican War
Zachary Taylor (1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
abolitionism Morality-based political movement against slavery
abolitionist movement An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded in condemning slavery as morally repugnant and abolishing it in much of the world; the movement was especially prominent in Britain and the United States.
active resistance the most negative reaction to a proposed change attempt, An individual who has taken it upon them self to resist (ex. sabotage, running away, quitting work, revolting, destroying crops, burning fields, murdering, etc.) Uncommon because of the consequences
American System An economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
aristocratic republicanism government system of the roman republic; this is based on the interest of wealthy powerful man
Bingham Young The leader and seer of the Mormons who claimed popular sovereignty as their basis of independent rule while seeking recognition from congress of territorial status and polygamy
Black Protestantism it prepared slaves spiritually for their emancipation, it helped slaves endure their suffering as it offered hope for justice in the afterlife
capitalism (aka free enterprise) an economic system in which individuals own and operate the majority of businesses that provide goods and services. Competition, supply, and demand determine which goods and services are produced, how they are produced, and how they are distributed. (US, Canada, Japan, and Australia)
Charles Fourier 1772-1837. French doctrinaire thinker who subjected all institutions to sweeping condemnation. Advocated "phalanstries" or small self-sufficient communes and a system of social and economic organization. None of those experiments that were tried in France succeeded. However, Brook Farms, on a similar principle, was run for about 5 years in America.
Charles G. Finney Created the biggest religious revival at Rochester in 1830-1831 attended by all denominations. He was known for speeding conversions. He believed destinies were in people's hands unlike Calvinists.
chattel slavery Ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
commonwealth capitalism states would funnel aid to private businesses
Communalism The practice of common ownership; loyalty and commitment to the interests of your own minority or ethnic group rather than to society as a whole
cotton gin Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
cult of domesticity the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
David Walker He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Declaration of Sentiments (1848) a statement written and signed by women's rights supporters at the Seneca Falls Convention; detailed their beliefs about social injustice against women.
democratic republicanism Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
domestic slave trade buying, selling, and forced movement of slaves within the boundaries of the U.S., 19th century, importance 1)1808 international slave trade ended for the U.S. 2) Cotton Kingdom-geographic shift takes place, they were expanding and moving west to new land, need more slaves, areas in South and West of the S, increased slave production, many moved from W to S, created more occupations for slaves, profitable
Dorothea dix A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War
Eli Whitney An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869
emancipation Free slaves
eminent domain Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
Erie canal , A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Fourierism A utopian socialist movement started by Charles Fourier. He wanted to counter the current industrial system to replace boredom of factory life. He advocated different forms of work each day as well as relatively free sexual activity.
Francis Cabot Lowell American industrialist who developed the Lowell system, a mill system that included looms that could both weave thread and spin cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star
free blacks a "third race", prohibited from certain occupations, barred from some Northern states, often in competition with whites for menial jobs
Harriet Tubman United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
henry clay A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Henry David Thoreau American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War
Hudson river school A group of American painters of the mid 1800s whose works are characterized by a highly romantic treatment of landscape, esp. along the Hudson River
industrial revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
john James Audubon American artist who drew birds, mammals, plants, and other subjects of nature giving special attention to the relationship between animals and their habitats.
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
joseph smith Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr
Lowell system Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, and the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives. Managers found these young women were the perfect workers for this type of factory life.
Lucretia Mott A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
magnates somebody who has a lot of wealth, power, and/or influence
market revolution : Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt
McCormick reaper Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots; 1831; fueled the large-scale establishment of commercial agriculture in the Midwest 69. McCulloch
mercantilism An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
middle class A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
Missouri Compromise "Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Mormonism Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God, and in 1830 he published a document called The Book of Mormon. He said it was a translation of a set of gld tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God.
Mother Ann Lee The founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, or Shakers. During the 1770s she emigrated from England to the town of Waterville, New York to avoid persecution. The method of worship she and others followed was one of ecstatic danci
Nat Turner (1800-1831) American slave leader, he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. Called Nat Turner's Rebellion, the slave revolt was the most violent one in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed
nativism A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Panic of 1819 1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down), depression, bank failures, foreclosures on western farms, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor's prisons. Also risky lending practices of the state and local banks led to over speculation on lands in west- the national bank tightened its credit lending policies and eventually forced these state and local banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors.
passive resistance Nonviolent action or opposition to authority, often in accord with religious or moral belief
patriarchy A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
plantation elite the 5% of the southern population who owned 50 or more slaves and enjoyed prestige, political leadership, and a lifestyle in which most inherited their wealth
Protestantism A division from the Catholic church that brought up a reformation within Western Christianity. They protested against the established Roman Catholic Church. It began in earnest when Martin Luther called in 1517 for a reopening of the debate on the sale of indulgences and the authority to absolve sin and remit one from purgatory. The reformers made use of inexpensive pamphlets because of the printing press which was still relatively new. This caused a swift movement of both ideas and documents, including The 95 Theses .In 1524,they Erupted into revolt and as they grew more violent they were denounced by Luther. With his support, the nobles suppressed the rebellion, killing tens of thousands of people and leaving thousands more homeless. The followers were also called Lutherans.
Ralph Waldo Emerson American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, selfimprovement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movemen
Reform movement Work to change society for the better. Focused on improving conditions for the poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, and disabled.
Regionalism an element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale, using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot
Religious reform Enlightenment-based change to religious orthodoxy.
republican motherhood: An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
republicanism A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Revivals Meetings where preachers whip up new religious fervor
Richard Allen An African American preacher who helped start the free African society and the African Methodist Episcopal church
Romanticism 19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Samuel Slater : "Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791
Seneca Falls Convention Took place in upper state New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote
sentimentalism an overindulgence in emotion which is characterized by a conscious effort to induce emotion in order to analyze or enjoy it by failure to restrain emotion through the exercise of judgment, and by an optimistic overemphasis of goodness of humanity 104. Shaker: ..., A millennial
slave society Economic type of society based upon the predominant use of unfree or slave labor to produce surplus products.
socialism: A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Sojourner Truth United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
Solomon Northup : a free black man from New York who was kidnapped by white men in March 1841 and experienced twelve years as a slave until he conspired his way out of slavery and was reunited with his family; wrote "Twelve Years a Slave"
suffrage: A legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
. Suffrage Movement The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920.
Susan B. Anthony : (1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
Temperance Movement A social movement, born in the 19th century, to reduce the consumption of alcohol in America. This movement was popular among women, who had to face their husbands and fathers "drinking away" the family savings, and dealt with alcohol related problems such as job loss, violence, and domestic abuse
Transcendentalism: A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotio
Uncle Toms Cabin written by Harriet Beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced England's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Underground railroad A secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States
Utopianism: : the political orientation of a utopian who believes in impossibly idealistic schemes social perfection, the goal to create an ideal society based on cooperation and economic self-sufficiency
. Walt Whitman American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
yeoman farmers family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams. During the war she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create
Albany congress 1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
Albany plan 1754: Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense. Pennsylvanian delegate, Benjamin Franklin, proposed a plan for an intercolonial government; the plan was later rejected by the colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power. It was an important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy
Alexander Hamilton 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people
American Revolution The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
Appropriate use of historical evidence knowing how to evaluate evidence from diverse primary sources based on content. extracting use for information, drawing appropriate conclusions.
Articles of Confederation 1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Battle of Saratoga American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Benjamin Franklin American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Bill of Rights First ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted by Madison, placed limitations of government and protects natural rights.
Boston massacre In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed.
Boston tea party A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor
coercive acts (1774) , This series of laws passed by Parliament were very harsh laws intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance, after Britain heard news of the Tea Party. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea, banned most town meetings. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
committees of correspondence A network of communicaiton set up in Massachusetts and Virginia to inform other colonies of ways that Britain threatened colonial rights
Common Sense 1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
compromise of 1790 This included passage of the Residence Act in July and the Funding Act in August. Central to this was an agreement that several Southerners would change their votes and support the federal assumption of state debts in return for a bill locating the US capital on the Potomac River after a ten year temporary residence at Philadelphia
Constitution A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society
Constitutional Convention A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Continental Congress A body of representatives from the British North American colonies who met to respond to England's Intolerable Acts. They declared independence in July 1776 and later drafted the Articles of Confederation.
Declaration of Independence 1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
Democratic-Republican Party An early political party headed by Thomas Jefferson; stood for less centralized government
Direct democracy A system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule.
excise taxes Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.
Federalist Papers A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Federalist Party a political party created in the 1790s and influenced by Alexander Hamilton that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade
First Bank of the United States Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, the Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government
first Continental congress 1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
French and Indian War (1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
George Washington 1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732- 1799)
Great Compromise A decision made during the Constitutional Convention to give each state the same number of representatives in the Senate regardless of size; representation in the House was determined by population.
Historical causality understanding that events of the past lead directly to later events
Historical contingency understanding that events depend upon prior conditions and that those prior conditions depend upon still other conditions
interpretation A technique used to explore the meanings of free association, dreams, resistances, and transference feelings
intolerable acts in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty hous
Iroquois Confederacy a powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondoga, and Oneida
James Madison "Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution
Jay's Treaty (1794) It was signed in hopes of settling the growing conflicts between U.S. and Britian. It dealt with the Norwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britian for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular in France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals
John Adams 1796; Federalist; notable events include XYZ affair, the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and his appointment of John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and numerous federalist "midnight judges"
King George III 1760-1820 ruler of Great Britain. He was a hero in Great Britain but in the colonies he was an evil tyrant.
Lexington and Concord April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Loyalists American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
Mercy Otis Warren (1728 - 1814) was an American writer and playwright. She was known as the "Conscience of the American Revolution". Mercy Otis was America's first female playwright, having written unbylined anti-British and anti-Loyalist propaganda plays from 1772 to 1775, and was the first woman to create a Jeffersonian (antiFederalist) interpretation of the Revolution
minutemen Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
Necessary and proper clause Gives Congress the powers to pass all laws necessary to carry out their constitutional duties; "elastic" clause (Art. I, Sec 8, clause 18)
New Jersey Plan A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
Northwest Ordinance Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Patrick Henry A leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
Patriots American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
paxton boys 1764; group of Scotts-Irish frontiersmen that led an armed march on Philadelphia protesting the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Indians; spearheaded the Regular Movement
Pinckney's Treaty established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Pontiac's rebellion 1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation Line An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east
Proclamation of Neutrality - A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.
Propaganda Information aimed at positively or negatively influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people
Quartering Act 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Republicanism A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Revolution of 1800 Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to DemocraticRepublican, so it was called a "revolution."
salutary neglect British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Samuel Adams American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Second Continental Congress 12 delegates meet in Philadelphia to express their growing dissatisfaction with King George and his lack of response to the Declaration of Rights
separation of powers Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Seven Years' War (1756-1763) war in which England and Prussia defeated France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. Known as French and Indian War in American History
Shay's Rebellion A 1787 rebellion in which exRevolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
sons of liberty A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest
stamp act an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
tariffs A tax on foreign goods to protect domestic industries and earn revenue.
tea act 1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
territorial-nationalistic revolution A revolution based on the almost religious idealization of citizenship rather than ethnicity, where citizens owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption. Legal equality is an essential value of territorialnationalistic revolutions
Thomas Jefferson Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
Thomas Paine American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Townshend Acts (1767) A set of laws passed by Parliament after Stamp Act crisis, that stated new taxes would be applied only to imported goods, paid at the port of entry. (glass, tea, paper, lead, etc.)
Treaty of Paris (1763) Because the British won, they created this which made France lose all of the north American territory, gave the colonists security from France and Spain and they got 2 more colonies
Treaty of Paris (1783) 1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
Valley Forge Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Virginia Plan "Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation
Whiskey Rebellion farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
XYZ Affair an incident in which French agents attempted to get bribe and loans from U.S. diplomats in exchange for an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships
Algonquian Native American language spoken by a large group of Native tribes living in Eastern North America
American Indians Native Americans. Residents of North America prior to the arrival of the European immigrants who inhabited the colonies
Anasazi A Native American who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings
anti-miscegenation prohibited sexual intercourse or marriage between persons of different races
Atlantic historians Historians who study the flow of goods plants, animals, people and ideas between Europe and North America
Atlantic slave trade the sale of African peoples as slaves to the Americas
Atlantic World Countries empires and people bordering the Atlantic Ocean from the 1450s to the 19th century
Aztec A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire
Baron Charles de Montesquieu French philosopher introduced separation of powers in government
Beaver Wars A period of war between the Dutch and English backed Iroquoians confederation and the French packed Algonquian
bias the preferences of prejudices that a person has; to influences judgement or perspective, often in a way that causes prejudice
British-American slave economy economic system based on the Atlantic slave trade
Calusa A Native American people formerly inhabiting the southwest coast of Florida from Tampa Bay to the Florida Keys. They were extinct by the mid-18th century
Carolinas (1663) founded by eight noblemen who were rewarded for loyalty to Charles II and absorbed overflow population from Virignia
causation relationship between two events in which one is the direct result of the other
Chesapeake colonies (Southern Colonies) included Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. Had a cash crop agriculture, slavery was important, mostly illiterate, Protestant, very isolated, high death rates and unstable families.
Chinook American Indian tribe living in lower Columbia river area in the pacific northwest
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
chronological thinking skills putting events in sequence and making connections based on continuity and change
claim A statement or assertion that is open to challenge and that requires support
Colonial assemblies a legislature government with members elected annually by propertied, free white men
colonialism The settlement of colonies and the policy used to assert and keep control over a territory by a "colonial power"
colonization the act of sending people to live in a territory
Columbian Exchange An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
comparison see how historical events are similar or different
Conquistadores Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
contextualization ability to connect historical events to specific circumstances
continental historians seeking to restore the importance of American Indians to the colonial story
correlation A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together. A correlation between two variable does not necessarily mean that one causes another
cultural exchange System in which people contracted to work on some one elses land before they could get their own land
Domination of New England administration upon the colonies in New England region of North America , 1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
English Civil war an armed conflict between the English monarchy and Parliament
Enlightenment cultural and intellectual movement
ethnography a study of human race and cultures
export economy a type of economy in which it's goods are produced mainly for export rather than for domestic use
feudalism loosely organized system in which lords controlled their lands
free labor system relies on paid workers who have a choice on where and how they work
George Whitefield English preacher church of England, lad the Great Awakening to America
Glorious Revolution Change in rule that took place after James II gave up the throne. William III and Mary II
Great Awakening Period of religious enthusiasm. wide read revivals, increase religious interests.
Harnan Cortes was a Spanish conquistador who led the expedition to the Aztecs
historical argument stance or view point that explains the reasons for an opinion about a past event
historical argumentation ability to define and frame a question about the past and to address that question through the construction of an argument
historical evidence Primary and secondary sources that support a historical argument
historical narrative a story, based on historical evidence, that presents ideas about what happened in the past
historical thinking skills skills that historian apply to analyzing evidence and info to make sence of the past
House of Burgesses law making body in the colony of Virginia
House of Commons Lower house of British Parliament. 650 member. elected by voters
Hunting and gathering culture How people survived before the Neolithic revolution; The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
indentured servitude person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to america.
indigneous native to a certain area
Inuit A member of a people inhabiting the Arctic (northern Canada or Greenland or Alaska or eastern Siberia)
Iroquois A group of tribes speaking related languages living in the eastern Great Lakes region.
Iroquois League powerful and important American Indian people who formed the league that today makes up six nations
John Locke English philosopher. Natural rights. Peoples chose leaders
Jonathan Edwards New England congregationalist minister, important figure in the Great Awakening
Leif Eriksson Norwegian Viking explorer, was the first European to explore the Americas.
Maryland Toleration Act mandated religious tolerance for Christians in Maryland
mercantilism theory that countries should trade to build up their stocks of silver and gold
methodology A set of processes, rules, templates, & working methods that prescribe how business analysis, solution development & implementation is performed in a particular context.
middle colonies Colonies that contained New York, Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania
Navigation Acts Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantilism system lead to growing resentment by colonists
New England colonies English colonies that became the states of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.
New Netherlands colony started by the Dutch in 1624 and taken over by England in `674
nomadic (of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
Parliament legislative branch of government in Great Britain
Patterns of continuity and change over time dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time and the relationships
Pequot tribe of American Indians who in 17th century inhabited much of Connecticut
Pequot War Armed conflict between Pequot tribe and an alliance of English colonists of Mass bay and their North American allies
periodization the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and construct models to organize history into discrete periods
pre-Columbian The term used when referring to the various cultures and civilizations found throughout North and South America before the arrival of Columbus
primary source An original document containing the observations, ideas, and conclusions of an individual. It is a firsthand account presented by someone present or actively participating in the event. Examples include manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and personal journals.
Proclamation of 1763 law stating the British could not move west of the Applachain Mountains
proximate Immediately preceding or following, as in a chain or events, causes, or effects
Pueblo Indians Lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe
Puritans Protestant religion group in 16th and 17th century in England and British colonies
Quakers Members of the religious society of Friends
representative government citizen elect people to represent them and run the government
republicanism political point of view. limit on government power. offices elected by the people
Roger Williams English man who founded the colony of Rhode Island. Favored fair treatment of Indians
royal charters doc issued by monarchy granting a right or power to an individual or a complete entity
salutary neglect allowing the colonies to operate independently and not have to follow British laws
Scots-Irish Presbyterian and other protestant groups and Irish Province ulster
separation of powers Division in powers between multiple parts of government
Seven Years' War An internation conflict fought in Europe and North America
slavery A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people
smallpox A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs; responsible for killing Native Americans.
southern colonies Colonies whose economy was based upon the plantation system and slavery - MD, VA, NC, SC, GA
theme A topic of historical identity that serves as a big idea for understanding the past
theme of America in the world influence on world affairs
theme of environment and geography examines roles of environment and geography and climate on shaping human actions
theme of ideas, beliefs, and geography how ideas beliefs and expression have played roles in shaping USA
theme of identity how Americans view themselves nations identity and group identity
theme of peopling why different groups came to american and how they adapted
theme of politics and power the role of the state in society and its potential as an active agents for change
theme of work, exchange, and technology different systems and technology have shaped america
thesis Focus statement of an essay; premise statement upon which the point of view or discussion in the essay is based.
triangular trade A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
validity the quality of being logically or factually sound
Voltaire French Enlightenment philosopher. strong defense for civil liberties. separation of church and state
William Penn English Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1677
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