Unit 4 - Flashcards

Calum Mooney
Flashcards by Calum Mooney, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Calum Mooney
Created by Calum Mooney almost 4 years ago
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Higher Human Biology Flashcards on Unit 4 - Flashcards, created by Calum Mooney on 01/23/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Name 4 structures on which antigens are found Body's own cells Foreign cells Cells infected by pathogens Toxins released by pathogens
Describe how vaccinations work Create an immunological memory to a particular antigen/pathogen
State three examples of control measures of infectious disease Drug therapy Immunisation Preventing transmission (or a combination of these)
Name the structure found on a lymphocyte which allows them to combine with only one antigen Membrane receptor
State 2 features of a vaccine which must be determined by clinical trials before the vaccine can be licensed for use Safety and efficacy
What do epidemiologists study? The outbreak and pattern of infectious diseases
State two effects brought about by histamine at the site of infection Increased capillary permeability Vasodilation of small arteries (arterioles)
Describe what is meant by herd immunity The immunisation of a large percentage of a population against a particular disease
Describe how natural killer (NK) cells destroy pathogens Cause viral infected cells to produce self-destructive enzymes and die by apoptosis
Explain why non-immune individuals are protected in herd immunity There is a lower probability they will come into contact with infected individuals
Explain why groups are compared at the end of a trial To determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the groups
Describe how phagocytes destroy pathogens Recognise antigens on surface of pathogen and destroy pathogen by phagocytosis
Name the molecule produced by B lymphocytes which recognise specific antigen surface molecules on pathogens or toxins Antibodies
State 3 responsibilities of individuals in controlling the spread of infectious disease Care in sexual health Good hygiene Appropriate storage/handling of food
Some T and B lymphocytes survive long term as which type of cell following exposure to a particular antigen? Memory cell
Name the type of white blood cells which may become memory cells following an antigen response T and B lymphocytes
Describe what is meant by epidemic occurrence of infectious disease Unusually high number of cases in an area
By which process can active immunity be developed with antigens from infectious pathogens? Vaccinations
Name two types of cell which release cytokines during the non-specific immune response Phagocytes and natural killer cells
The action of which system allows the body to protect itself against pathogens, toxins and cancer cells? Immune system
Suggest 3 reasons why herd immunity may be unsuccessful Malnutrition Poverty Vaccine rejected by percentage of population
Name the type of white blood cell which induces virally infected cells to die by apoptosis Natural killer cells
Name a pathogen which directly attacks the immune system HIV
Which type of white blood cell accumulates at the site of infection during the inflammatory response? Phagocytes
What do HIV and AIDS stand for? Human immunodeficiency virus Acquires immunodeficiency syndrome
Describe what is meant by antigenic variation Pathogens change their antigens to avoid the effect of immunological memory
During which type of response is histamine released? Inflammatory response
B lymphocytes respond to an antigen which normally possesses no threat. What name is given to this condition? Allergy
Describe how T lymphocytes distinguish between the surface molecules of the body's own cells and potentially harmful cells T lymphocytes have specific surface proteins
Describe what is meant by sporadic occurrence of infectious disease Occasional occurrence of disease
Name the type of white blood cell which produces antibodies B lymphocytes
Suggest why the influenza virus remains a major public health problem and requires yearly vaccination of at risk individuals Influenza was able to carry out antigenic variation to change its antigens therefore avoiding the effect of immunological memory
T lymphocyte response to self antigens causes which type of disease? Autoimmune disease
Name the structure recognised by phagocytes on the surface of a pathogen Antigen
Explain why groups in a clinical trial must be of suitable size To reduce the magnitude of experimental error
Which type of cells are involved in immune surveillance? White blood cells
Describe the process of clonal selection Antigen binding leads to repeated lymphocyte division resulting in a clonal population of lymphocytes
State 3 possible ways in which spread of infectious disease can be controlled Quarantine Antisepsis Individual responsibility Community responsibility Vector control
Name the process by which NK cells destroy virally infected cells Apoptosis
Name the type of white blood cell which releases histamine Mast cells
State 3 responsibilities of communities in controlling the spread of infectious disease Safe food webs Quality water supply Appropriate waste disposal systems
Describe how antigen presenting cells are formed Phagocytes capture pathogen and display fragments of its antigens on its surface
Name the substance produced by mast cells during the inflammatory response Histamine
Name 2 chemical substances which are delivered to the site of infection during the inflammatory response Clotting elements Antimicrobial proteins
Vaccinations may include weakened pathogens. Which other form of pathogens may be present in a vaccine? Inactivated pathogen toxins Dead pathogens Parts of pathogens
The threshold for herd immunity depends upon which 3 factors? Contact parameters of the population Type of disease Effectiveness of vaccine
Which term describes the immunisation of a large percentage of the population? Herd immunity
An unusually high number of cases of an infectious disease across the globe may be described as... Pandemic
Explain why adjuvants are included in vaccnations To enhance the immune response
Describe the possible actions of an antibody on a pathogen Inactivate pathogen Render pathogen more susceptible to phagocytosis Cause cell lysis
During which process does antigen binding lead to repeated lymphocyte division? Clonal selection theory
Compare first and second exposure to a particular antigen Secondary exposure leads to a greater and more rapid immunological response
Describe how TB avoids immune detection Survives within phagocytes
State the role of cytokines Stimulate specific immune responses
Describe the role of B lymphocytes in the specific immune response Produces specific antibodies that will recognise a specific antigen surface molecule on a pathogen or toxin Produce clones of B lymphocytes that secrete antibodies
State 3 methods of transmission of infectious disease Direct physical contact Food Water Vector organisms Inhaled air Body fluids
Describe what is meant by a 'double-blind' trial' and why this is an essential design feature Neither the subjects nor the physicians know which group has received the trial vaccine or the placebo Eliminates bias
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