Neuroscience Presentation 1 - Psy 343 Final

Jill C
Flashcards by Jill C, updated more than 1 year ago
Jill C
Created by Jill C almost 7 years ago


Neuroscience Flashcards on Neuroscience Presentation 1 - Psy 343 Final, created by Jill C on 12/12/2013.

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Question Answer
What is behavioural neuroscience? Is a field of science that examines how the brain & neuronal processes that operate within the brain & its nuclei control and shape the behaviour of an organism. May draw techniques used by other neuroscientists.
What is neuroanatomy Deals with the structure and connectivity of the nervous system. Looks at cell types in the nervous system: where they are located & how they are connected. Looks at fiber pathways between various brain nuclei and between different types of neurons. Examines major land marks & structures of the brain & compares the PNS to the CNS. Examine the general layout of the nervous system (CNS & PNS)
What is neurochemistry? Chemical basis of neural activity. Examines how neurotransmitters & the movement of charged ions across the cell membrane change the membrane potential in neurons to alter firing patterns. Often uses electrophysiological recordings with biochemical manipulation of neurons to determine their functional role in the CNS.
What is neuroendocrinology? Interactions between the nervous and the endocrine system. Examine how certain hormones & peptides secreted by the body's organs & glands can interact with the brain to influence behaviour & alter neuronal activity.
What is neuropathology? Nervous system disorders & brain damage. How the degeneration of certain neurons, brain regions & synaptic connections can cause various kinds of disorders & neurological disease. These degenerative disorders may cause motor dysfunctions, memory problems, difficulties in maintaining posture & initiating movement. Examples include Alzheimers, Dementia, Parkinsons, Huntingtons, Schizophrenia, MS, Epilepsy
What is Neuropharmacology? The effects of drugs on neural activity & function. Drugs of abuse (cocaine and amphetamine) which act on the brain's DA system are studies to examine how they influence behaviour & brain functioning & lead to addiction and compulsive behaviours. The goal of studies with benzodiazepines (antianxiety drugs) aim to make more effective drugs that are not addictive.
What is neurophysiology? Examines the functions and activities of the nervous system in response to an external event such as a series of training trials that involve learning & memory, or response to stress. Studies the changes & modifications that occur in individual neurons or neuronal populations following exposure to a stressor or after conditioning. Researchers look for changes in neuronal functoning such as LTP or LTD, which indicate that the brain & network have been modified through learning.
What is included in the CNS? The brain and the spinal cord
What is included in the PNS? Outside of the skull and spine;serves to bring info into the CNs and carry signals out of the CNS. Composed of the Somatic Nervous System and the ANS
What are the divisions of the somatic nervous system? Afferent and Efferent nerves
What are the divisions of the ANS The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
What are the structural classes of neurons? Multipolar - more than 2 processes Unipolar - 1 process Bipolar - 2 processes Interneurons - short processes or no axons
What are the three components of a multipolar neuron? 1. A sensory component: The dendrites 2. A central component: Cell body 3. A motor output component:Axon hillock
Multipolar neurons Have dendrites (sensory portion of the neuron) which extend from the soma, and an axon
What are the five major divisions of the brain? Forebrain: Telecephalon, Diencephalon Midbrain: Mesencephalon Hindbrain: Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
What are the major structures in the telencephalon? 1. The cerebral cortex (or neocortex) 2. The limbic system 3. The basal ganglia
Name the two most prominent landmarks on the lateral surface of each hemisphere 1. the central fissure 2. the lateral fissure
Name the largest gyri 1. The precentral gyri 2. The postcentral gyri 3. The superior temporal gyri
4 important characteristics of the neocortex 1. 2 different kinds of neurons: Pyramidal cells/neurons and Stellate neurons (star shaped) 2.the 6 layers that differ from one another (size and density of cell bodies; ratio of pyramidal to stellate cells in each layer differs) 3. The vertical flow of information running through the axons adn the dendrites: the basis of the neocortex columnar organization. 4. The 6 layers vary in thickness from one functional brain area to another
Why may a brain layer be thicker than other brain layers? May be receiving & processing lots of sensory information. May be because of which signals are being sent where
Name the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex (surface) 1. Axons & dendrites 2. Mainly stellate interneurons 3. Stellate cells and pyramidal cells 4. Densely packed stellate cells 5. Very large pyramidal cells 6. Pyramidal cells of various sizes, some stellate cells (subcortical)
What is the limbic system involved in? involved in the regulation of motivated behaviours that ensure survival - the 4 F's
What are the brain structures of the limbic system? 1. the amygdala 2.the hippocampus 3. the fornix 4. the cingulate cortex 5. The septum 6. Mammillary bodies
What are the basal ganglia? The motor system. Contains the amygdala, striatum (caudate nucleus & putamen), Globus pallidus Nuclues accumbens (part of striatum)
What is the HPA axis? A system activated to energize the body in response to stressors (crucial for short-term stress responses). Hypothalamus sends chemical messengers to the pituitary, which then prompts the adrenal cortex to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol & other hormones. ACTH triggers the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex
Two pathways in which the hypothalamus sends messages to the endocrine glands 1. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system - stimulates the adrenal medulla to produce E and NE. 2. messages travel along the HPA axis, which produces cortisol & other hormones (results in increased energy & protection from tissue inflammation)
What are the stages of general adaptaion syndrome? Developed by Hans Selye 1. Alarm stage - SNS, release of adrenal hormones, flight or fight 2. resistance phase - body attempts to resist or cope with stress 3. Exhaustion phase - persistent stress depletes the body of energy; increases vulnerability to physical problems & illness; learned helplessness & depression may develop
Stress to Depression hypothesis Prolonged stress & elevated corticosterone leads to reduced dendritic branching in the hippocampus &effects glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus. This leads to depression-like behaviours in lab animals
Where do the mesocortical and mesolimbic DA pathways originate from? From dopamine neurons found in the A10 cell group of the VTA
In the mesocortical DA system, where do the VTA neurons of the A10 group innervate? several frontal & temporal neocortical brain areas that are thought to play a role in higher order functioning.
Where do the VTA DA neurons of the A10 region project to? the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex (see slide 43)
What is the mesolimbic DA system? The dopaminergic system that connects with several limbic regions that are involved in producing the autonomic & behavioural responses that are commonly associated with highly charged emotional states. Can be involved in FEAR and STRESS. (See slide 46)
Rats and primates exposed to stress (shock; restraint stress, etc.) show increased levels of _______ _______ in the _____, ________, & ________ Dopamine metabolites; amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); Cingulate cortex
When exposed to stress, you usually see an increase of dopamine metabolites such as ________ homovanillic acid
The dopamine theory of schizophrenia suggests that stress & elevated dopamine levels may be a contributing factor to schizophrenia in come cases
How may an overactive DA system be linked to psychiatric illness? DA agonists (ie. cocaine and d-amphetamine) exacerbate the positive sympotoms of schizophrenia (elevate fear & paranoid thoughts). Schizo patients have a higher number of D2 DA receptors in the amygdala & generally higher levels of DA activity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical DA system.
What does the inhibition of DA receptor & systems tend to do? Reduce fear & stress related responses
Common Features of Epilepsy Primary symptom is seizures. Have seizures generated by their own brain dysfunctoin. What occurs is a certain population of neurons in the amygdala, hippocampus, or temporal lobes fire excessively in an uncontrolled fashion. Often leads to memory loss, emotionality, feeling of fear. Fear memory flash backs & ictal fear is common. Hallucinations & epigastric upset is common
The types of seizures in epilespsy Convulsions - motor seizures. Some are merely subtle changes of thought, mood, or behaviour.
What are the causes of seizures in epileptics? How is a diagnosis given? Brain damage, and genes - over 70 known. Diagnosis is given by an EEG - electroencephalogram - seizures are associated with high amplitude spikes
What is the most common form of epilepsy, and where in the brain is it found? Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It is usually confined to the amygdala or the hippocampus. It is characterized by a particular pattern of cell loss and synaptic re-growth or re-wiring. About 40 - 50% of TLE patients are unresponsive to drug treatments
What is Parkinson's Disease associated with? associated with the degeneration of the substatntia nigra, whose neurons use dopamine. There is almost no dopamine in the substantia nigra of parkinson's patients. Treated temporarily with L- dopa (chemical from which DA is synthesized) - used until side effects outweigh benefits. Linked to ~10 different gene mutations
What is Multiple Sclerosis and what are the symptoms? A progressive disease that attacks CNS myelin (immune cells attack myelin), leaving areas of hard scar tissue (sclerosis). The nature and severity of deficits vary with the nature, size, and position of sclerotic lesions. Symptoms include visual disturbances, muscles weakness, numbness, tremor, and loss of motor coordinaton (ataxia)
Things to consider in neuroscience when thinking about the brain and behaviour 1. Clinical implications: how we can learn about the functioning of the normal brain from studying a diseased or damaged brain. 2. Evolutionary perspective: We can study how environmental pressures & genetic factors can trigger changes in brains & behaviours ( how different species exhibit similar behaviours, how certain brain regions are similar across species). Uses a "comparative approach" - how structures are similar across species 3. Neuroplasticity: Brain and neural netowrks are adaptable & constantly undergoing changes; they changes continually in response to genetic programs & experiences
What can plasticity take the form of? Long-Term-Potentiation (LTP) or Long-Term-Depression (LTD). Means that some neuronal connections (synapses) may be strengthened after a learning experience or the implementation of a genetic program (LTP). Likewise, other connectionsmay be weakend (LTD).
What are LTP and LTD? neurobiological events that occur during learning or genetic programming. Therefore, the explain how learning takes place in the brain at neuronal & biochemical levels
Contributions on Donald Hebb Suggested that learning, memory & behaviour might be due to neuronal plasticity & synaptic modification occurring in the brain. "Neurons that wire together & develop networks also fire together".
It can be said that behavioural neuroscience deals and encompasses 1. overt behaviours 2. Internal processes (learning, memory, motivation, emotion, etc) 3. Neuronal and CNS processing 4. Neuropharmacological events 5. Neuroendocrine actions 6. Neuroanatomy and neurochemistry 7. Neurophysiological changes (LTP, LTD, plasticity) Does all this to discover how the brain & neuronal activity influence behaviour
Why is it advantageous to study humans in biopsychological research ? because we can generalize many of the results obtained from studies directly to understanding or explaining human brain functioning. Ex. study people who have had a stroke or specific damage to an area. By observing these deficits, we can understadn how a certain brain region may contribute to normal functioning.
Why us nonhuman animals as subjects? Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behaviour interactions will be revealed. Fewer ethical restrictions. Insights into the functional role of certain brain regions can be gained by examining common structures across different animal species. Experiments can take place in a lab setting where you can control for any confounding variables
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