world cities

Flashcards by las1365, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by las1365 about 5 years ago


world cities

Resource summary

Question Answer
megacity a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million
world city a city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics , culture and science etc
millionaire city a city with over 1 million inhabitants
urbanisation the growth in the proportion of a country's population that lives in urban as opposed to rural areas
CBD the central business district. this is the core of a city and where all of the major business takes place
natural population growth the population increases due to the birth rate being higher than the death rate ONE OF THE CAUSES OF URBANISATION
rural to urban migration the movement of people from the countryside to the city. one of the causes of urbanisation
the brown agenda an attempt to solve some of the environmental problems faced in some poor cities in the world 2 DISTINCT COMPONENTS -traditional issues associated with environmental health caused by lack of clean water etc.. -problems with rapid growth air pollution etc
suburbanisation the process of population movement from the central area of cities toward the suburbs on the outskirts of the rural urban fringe
counter urbanisation the process in which the population of cities actually falls as people move out beyond the rural urban fringe into areas that are truly rural
eco-towns small new towns of between 5000 and 20000 homes. the developments are intended to produce zero carbon emissions
squatter settlements a collection of poor quality housing usually located on wasteland in poor cities
re urbanisation the movement of people back to live in old city centres which have been redeveloped
gentrification a process of housing improvements. it is associated with a change in neighbourhood composition in which low income groups are displaced by more affluent people
urban deprivation the inequalities which occur in all urban areas. a measure of how poor housing, employment, crime etc are within an urban area
urban regeneration the attempt to improve housing, quality of life and the general environment in cities
urban development corporations UDCs these were set up in the 1980s and 1990s to take responsibility for the physical, economic and social regeneration of selected inner city areas
urban sprawl the outward spread of urban areas
out of town retailing a development of shops and businesses away from the urban area which can take valuable costumers away from the CBD
sustainable city a city designed to meet the needs of its people today without compromising the needs of the future generations
causes of urbanisation rural to urban migration natural population growth
example of millionaire city cape town. London, Birmingham, berlin
example of a world city new York, paris, singapore
example mega city Mumbai, mexico city, dehli
ADV of mega cities effective community development emergence of informal sectors concentration of health services provision of education, services concentration of industry
DIS of mega cities services concentrated in richer areas enormous environmental problems transport problems social segregation migrants remain homeless& jobless
what caused cities to grow in Europe agricultural revolution invention of industrial processes new forms of power improved transport gradual improvements in medicine
people squat on 3 main types of land land not suitable land close to cities land on the edge of the city (no waste collection, sanitation)
migrants moving into a city cannot rent a house so they... move in with friends some sleep rough many people squat, build makeshift housing, in areas of similar houses
UN 5 characteristics of a slum... 1. inadequate access to safe water 2.inadequate access to sanitation and infrastructure 3. over crowding, high population density 4. insecure residential status 5. poor structural quality of housing
ADV/HOPE TO SLUMS 1.strong family and friendship 2. water supply being improved by authorities 3.some formal employment 4.housing improvements 5.illegal hook ups to electricity, being replaced by legal ones 6. authorities providing services
DIS/DESPAIR TO SLUMS 1. easy spread of infections and diseases 2.poor water supply and sewage 3.poorly built housing, little on going improvements 4.high unemployment 5. widespread crime, prostitution and drug 6. appears untidy 7. squatters insecure
CALCUTTA issues BROWN AGENDA low lying, flooded easily increase risk of diseases by flooding land undesirable WORST SLUMS IN THE WORLD MOTHER TERESA
CALCUTTA solutions BROWN AGENDA reinforced the banks attempt to stop people squatting on the lowest lying land improve sewage disposal replacing mud tracks installing street lighting widen roads improve public transport
MUMBAI location western coast of India once seven islands where Ulhās river meets the Arabian sea consists of two districts: Mumbai city, Mumbai suburban area
MUMBAI why has it grown so rapidly? closest part to enter the subcontinent peninsula fishing villages- industrialised surrounded by water, land is a premium high level of natural increase in-migration from Maharashtra
MUMBAI- DHARAVI redevelopment land sold cheaper split into 10 sectors every sq foot of new housing they build for the poor, get +30% more commercial development free housing for slum dwellers if name appears in the voters list as on 01.01.1995 before 1995 government make 2-3$ billion
what is the Brown Agenda environmental problems experienced by cities in LEDCS is now referred to as a brown agenda
brown agenda 1992... RIO EARTH SUMMIT agreed that pollution problems, environmental hazards and poverty would be priorities in the 21st century
SAO PAULO location URBANIZATION largest city in southern hemisphere 2008 metropolitan pop. 19 million pop. density 21,000 between 1991 and 2001 pop. increase 16%
SAO PAULO background? URBANIZATION initially grew as a centre of agriculture, exporting coffee and cotton now a major industrial centre with manufacturing & services
SAO PAULO attractive feature URBANIZATION temperate climate due to its elevated position compared with the tropical coastal lowlands
SAO PAULO environment URBANIZATION 25% of all vehicles in Brazil go through it much has been done to improve air quality carbon monoxide & ozone still problem cities spend $1m a day on rubbish collection 2001, two landfill sities, two was incinerators (7500T a day)
SAO PAULO rich URBANIZATION Moema, HDI equivalent to the portuguese 240 helipads, new york has 10
SAO PAULO slums URBANIZATION heliopolis largest area for slums 100000 people live services are poor little running water mains drainage rubbish collection open sewers lack of schools, teachers, hospitals drinking water polluted high unemployment
SAO PAULO 1990s housing improvements schemes URBANIZATION 1990s,city supplied funding directly to community groups- build own/renovate authorities provided serviced plots- with mains water,electricity, sewerage, roads low cost solution
SAO PAULO 2000 housing improvements schemes URBANIZATION Santa Andre area integrated programme of social inclusion to alleviate property included: micro-credit facilities, community healthcare workers, literacy ptogrammes
MUMBAI- DHARAVI SLUMS positives 1.informal shopping areas 2. mosques catering for religious needs 3.pottery area- community centre, central social square 4. sense of community 5.buildings adds interest and diversity 6. 80% waste is recycled in Dharavi 7. recycling industry =$1.5m employs 10000 85% have a job in the slum,work locally
MUMBAI- DHARAVI negatives sewers 2.children play amongst sewage waste 3.doctors deal with 4000 cases a day of diphtheria and typhoid legal rights to the land 5.toxic wastes in the slum 6. no maps or road signs 7.asbestos roof 8. standpipes come on for 2 hours 5:30 am 9. 500 people share one public latrine 10. lack sanitation, excrement
SUBURBANISATION Push Factors 1.congestion and population density of city centres 2.pollution caused by industry and high levels of traffic 3. general perception of a lower quality of life in the city centres 4. Deindustrialisation in city centres leads to people losing their jobs
SUBURBANISATION pull factors 1. more open spaces and a perception of being closer to 'nature' 2. low price of land and housing 3. increasing number of job opportunities in the suburban areas 4. general perception of better opportunities for education 5.planning laws relaxed- UK 1950s took advantage
how has suburbanisation developed... 1. white flight 2. transport infrastructure 3. communication technology belt commuting 5. edge cities
SUBURBANISATION white flight white families moved to the suburbs which they perceived as safer places to live and raise a family
SUBURBANISATON transport infrastructure which allowed the development of commuting to the nearby town or city centre to work development in railways, bus routes and roads LONDON UNDERGROUD
SUBURBANISATION communication technology spread of broadband, e-mail, practical home video conferencing enabled more people to work from home rather than commuting
SUBURBAISATION edge cities clusters of office buildings built around suburban business districts ad shopping malls
SUBURBANISATION green belt commuting policies that limit growth in the fringe of a city, in order to encourage more growth in the urban core
SUBURBANISATION CASE STUDY Los Angeles home to 24million second largest city in USA
Los Angeles Reasons for growth 1.transport 2.employment 3.image
Los Angeles Reasons for growth- transport 1.transcontinental railway from the east 1876 2.freeways spread across the city 3.electric tramways in 1920s-30s 4. Air travel (LAX)
Los Angeles Reasons for growth- employment 1.opening of the ford car plant 2. Discovery of oil 3. Aircraft industry 4. Other manufacturing industries Provided continuous growth
Los Angeles Reasons for growth- image 1.development of the film industry-Hollywood 2.1920s and 30s provided a glamorous image 3.perceived better quality of life- space for a pool, roads, schools, shopping malls 4. High pressure systems build up over LA
Los Angeles Negative impacts Social 1.time spent travelling to and from work 2.stress caused by travel, little time for partners, family 3.suburban communities exist as dormitory settlements 4. Increased cases of asthma
Los Angeles Negative impacts Environmental 1. Urban smog- increasingly congested freeways and greater air pollution 2. Car culture, in 2005 just 10.2% of commuters used public transport, London 40%
Housing in the UK... no. of households has risen by 30% since 1971 reasons: more people living alone, marrying later, getting divorced, living longer Government target is to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016
features of greenfield sites... 1.sites tend to be larger 2.relatively low density 3.usually on agricultural land in green belts 4.infrastructure costs are high as new sewerage, water, gas and electricity supplies have to be considered is not available unless planning permission has been obtained
features of a brownfield site... 1.derelict sites in urban areas 2.sites tend to be small 3.environment is generally improved 4.can be costly to reclaim 5.built in high density 6.infrastructure is normally present though existing facilities
COUNTER-URBANISATION ST IVES- LOCATION in Cambridgeshire 100km North East of London lies on the A1123, 8KM east of Hundington regular trains to London make it accessible pop. 1961 3,800 to 2011 16,710
ST IVES- IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTAL St Ives is on the River Great Ouse new developments have been built on the south river bank in the centre of town , and on the floodplain - 1000 properties are at risk of flooding from a 1 in 100 year event Some people from the rural areas may still commute into the city areas, which increase congestion and pollution
ST IVES- IMPACTS ECONOMIC house prices in St Ives have risen dramatically from 130,000 in 2000 to 317,840 in 2015 There are now more shops and services. Such as selling clothes, antiques as well as more cafés and restaurants
ST IVES- IMPACTS SOCIAL Originally it was an ageing population, now there are more people under the age of 16 than over the age of 65 Increased employment as business parks and services develop Resistance to building more homes from the local residents, but many of these are new to the town themselves and do not want their chosen environment changed
ST IVES MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 1. 2010 plans to approved to build 200 new homes (75 affordable housing for lower income) 2. 2007, flood protection works included embankments and flood walls 3. new guided busway, links St Ives to Huntingdon and Cambridge- £116m 4. plans to extend busway to a new train station in Cambridge- reduce no. of commuters at hungtingdon
what are the main reasons why counter urbanisation occurs? 1. increase in car ownership over the past 40 years 2.growth in information technology 3. urban areas are becoming increasingly unpleasant 4. more people move out to retire 5. new business parks in the suburbs
urban decline the deterioration of an urban area often caused by a lack of investment and maintenance
characteristics of urban decline derelict buildings high levels of air, noise, land and water pollution high crime rates poor quality housing social segregation poor building maintenance empty buildings
problems faced by inner city areas social local employment declined housing is either old terraces or cheap tower blocks difficult police- community relations poorer than average health levels
problems faced by inner city areas economic high cost of land compared with suburbs low income local employment declined
problems faced by inner city areas environmental shortage of open spaces, most of what exists is wasteland many derelict buildings- often vandalised
cycle of urban decline industrial decline/deindustrialisation reduce workforce buildings are empty people made unemployed high rates in depression less income high crime rates- burglary, graffiti lower aspirations weaker achievements at school less skilled workforce low investor confidence
The 3 main reasons for social segregation 1. housing 2. changing environment 3. ethnic diversions
characteristics of the inner city 1.high population out-migration -many boarded up shops -many empty and derelict properties -closing of schools, low levels of education -high levels of employment -high crime, vandalism, graffiti -low levels of participation in local democracy
how many people live in the inner cities of the UK more than 4 million
SOCIAL SEGREGATION housing 1. wealthier groups of people move out of the inner city 2.inner city- full of welfare housing or where people can get a cheap place to rent 3. leads to further decline
SOCIAL SEGREGATION changing environment 1. Victorian & Georgian housing built for large families are too big for the average family size 3. converted into flats and apartments for private renting, people on low incomes
SOCIAL SEGREGATION ethnic diversion 1. migrate to the country 2.forced to take low income jobs, or be unemployed 3. concentrate in poor areas, where it is cheap, creates a multi cultural society EXAMPLE: tower hamlets, london
Causes of inner city decline 5. 1. poor physical environment 2. population loss and social decline 3. inner city high rise developments 4.economic decline 5.political decline
Causes of inner city decline high rise developments 1.common feature in the 1960s and 70s 2.some were built well, others not so 3.people hated them: lack of community, expensive to heat, poorly ventilated causing damp, open spaces had no maintenance led to graffiti, poor design gave hiding places led to crime activity
Causes of inner city decline political 1.inner areas have been marginalised politically 2.lowest election turnouts 3.local people have elected members of far right parties- British national 4. demolish 4000 homes a year to meet targets or face funding cuts 5.pathfinder regeneration scheme, 3mil homes by 2020
Causes of inner city decline population loss and social decline 1. 1951-1981 UK conurbations lost 35% of the population, key cause: migration 2.1970s Liverpool and Manchester experienced out migration from inner areas led to a decline of 25% 3.60s-70s out movement led growth in small towns
key causes of out migration 1. changing residential preferences 2.job growth 3.poor image of inner areas 4. those who left were affluent and more skilled, those left behind were old and poor
Causes of inner city decline poor physical environment 1.usually poor, low quality housing, derelict properties, vacant factories, overgrown wasteland 2. high levels of graffiti 3.concrete dominate landscape 4. 19 century housing often poor quality, slum clearance schemes of the 60s and 70s, created unsightly estates
Causes of inner city decline economic decline 1. since 50s, been widespread movement of employment away from large conurbations 2. fall in manufacturing, coal, railway 3. 1960-81, more than 1.6 million manufacturing jobs lost 4. accounted for 75% of national job losses 5.growth in service industries, 80s-90s services fell by 7% 8. 1994 inner cities unemployement rate 50% higher than the rest
re-urbanisation in the UK background since 1970s been many initiatives aimed at regeneration 1980s general view that these areas could best be improved by encouraging housing, jobs and services back 1990s urban infrastructure out dated and deteriorated rapidly
average house price in Islington jan 2015 over £600000
average house price for Newcastle Jan 2015 around £200000
Positive impacts gentrification 1.housing is improved 2.public spaces improved businesses- cater for wealthy 4.wealth of neighbourhood 5.crime rates may fall
negative impacts gentrification 1.tenants forced out 2.displacement 3.tension between local people 4.inner city schools often fail 5.orginal residents may lose shops and services they needed (launderettes) replaced with trendy shops
ISLINGTON location 1. is a borough of north london 2.occupied by georgian and victorian housing of the smallest boroughs 4.served by the underground, on the victoria line
Management Strategies ISLINGTON encouraged to pay london living wage increased to £8.30 charities to improve education eg LIGHT PROJECT INTERNATIONAL RUN PRACTICAL MATHS CLASSES for unemployed over 16s & adult education classes in languages
what is a UDC? 1.set up in the 1980s ended by 90s 2.responsible for physical, economic and social regeneration of selected inner city areas 3.encouraged to spend public money on land purchases, infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment gain 4/5x the amount of money originally spent from private investment
what was the first UDC project? 1981, London Docklands
overall impact of UDC's they built or refurbished 35,000 housing units created 190,000 jobs
UDC case study TWDC Tyne and wear
Background information TWDC 1.central hub of the industrial revolution 2. shipbuilding employed 10,000 people from Elswick and Scotswood 3.decline from over seas competition, badly effected particularly the WEST END
aims of the TWDC 1.create a new business district 2.increase employment 3.reviving riversides so people can live there 4.improving the landscape and environment
what did the TWDC cover? -covered 26 miles of riverside -spanned 4 local authority areas: Newcastle, north Tyneside, south Tyneside, sunderland
TWDC developments -received £430 million from the government -£1114 million of private sector -flagship projects: Newcastle business park, copthorne hotel (£30m), Newcastle area, 10 historic building restoration, St peters Basin
successes of the TWDC -transformed Newcastle quayside -committed to supporting, informing and consulting local communities -2000 jobs created -25% of housing is low cost and attainable for locals -proper attention to disability issues
criticisms of the TWDC -communities had to be relocated -focused too much on the service sector and managerial posts -jobs required higher qualifications -biased towards Newcastle, metro system didn't extend to Sunderland till after the project -able to purchase land without the land owners permission
partnership schemes aim to regenerate an area. They involve local councils and businesses and local communities.
example of a partnership scheme city challenge partnerships
how did a city challenge partnership work? to gain funding a local authority had to come up with a project and form a partnership with the private sector and communities. compete with other areas for funding had to submit a 5 year plan received £37.5 million
example of city challenge Hulme city challenge partnership
Hulme City challenge- who was involved? -number of agencies and organisations -Manchester city council worked with the guinness trust , bellway homes and the Hulme social issues committee
Hulme City challenge-what did it involve? -built 3000 new homes -new shopping areas -new roads, community facilities -improved transport links -asda supermarket -zion centre -business park at Birley Fields
Hulme City challenge-was it a success? -between 2003-09 population doubled in the city centre to over 19000 -Manchester became the third most popular tourist destination in the UK -retail made an extra 300 million a year HOWEVER -47.5% still live in social housing
factors affecting retail change 1.increased mobility 2.changing nature of shopping habits 3.changing nature of retailing 4.changing expectations of shopping habits
factor affecting retail change- increased mobility -end of 2013 there was 35 million vehicles -4 million vehicles in 1950s -car parking in the city centre are expensive and restricted (London £42) -locations next to motorways offer speedy access
factor affecting retail change- changing expectations of shopping habits -more of a social event -metro centre metrognomes perform for free during school holidays and weekends -large shopping centres to contain fast food, entertainment (NAMCO) -steve humble maths trail around the metro centre
factor affecting retail change- changing nature of retailing -lower land prices of out of town areas -reduce prices means larger car parks and more facilities -metro centre was a former waste land, worth £100,000 with a catchment area of 1,5 million people within a 30 minute drive
factor affecting retail change- changing nature of shopping habits - countries online shopping increased from £1,017 to £1,175 in 2012 -75% of the population buy goods from the internet once a month -25% of the population buy goods from the internet every week -suits lifestyles: cheaper prices, next day delivery and click and collect services -freezers
examples of out of town shopping centeres metro centre- Gateshead bluewater- kent meadow hall- sheffield
what do regional centres have in common -built on edge of a major conurbation, where land is cheaper (bid-rent theory) -where land was derelict -close to major road networks -plenty of space for car parking -built close to housing areas -attract individuals and families
Negatives of out of town shopping centres -compete with other shopping areas both in town and suburban areas -cause of server congestion on the nearby motorways -socially divisive so they exclude the poor, elderly, under 17s, single parent families
decentralisation Is the process of shops and services moving to the outskirts of a town
Out of town shopping centres- Negative impacts on the city centre -people may have less disposable income, therefore less money to spend in local shops, on their homes -vacant shops can attract vandalism -loss of jobs so city centre shops may be forced to closed -urban decline can begin -compete with city centre shops, fewer people shop in the city centre
Out of town shopping centres- Positive impacts on the city centre -can be improved as local councils seek to compete -decrease in congestion and pollution, improvements in air quality -pedestrian zones may be created, older shopping malls may be renovated and events like festivals to attract people back
Out of town shopping centres- Negative impacts on rural urban fringe -require a lot of construction creates noise pollution and adds to congestion
Out of town shopping centres- Positive impacts on rural urban fringe -jobs are created -often built on Brownfield sits which otherwise would have been empty BLUEWATER WAS A QUARRY -houses which have easy access to the shopping centres may increase in value
case study- out of town retailing Metro centre key facts -7,000 people work there -annual visitors is 23 million -3.5miles of shop fronts -over 330 shops
case study- out of town retailing Metro centre why is it a success 1.330 retailers 2.over 50 eating places parking, 10,000 spaces 4.excellent road and rail link 5.leisure attractions 6.attractive environment 7. very own chaplain 8. shop mobility- 32 scooters, 50 wheelchairs
case study- out of town retailing Metro centre charity work 1. recently worked with Joise's dragonfly trust 2. work with 150 charities, offering free space 3. over £90,000 raise in the center 4. provided with a budget of £10,000 to donate and support local charities 2013 money donated to 16 charities
case study- out of town retailing Metro centre impacts of the surrounding area 1. pedestrian counts were down in Newcastle and Gateshead 2. 1988 fell by 19% 1989 fell by 14% NCL 3. Gateshead fell by 34% in 1988 4.Howard 1989 showed that 12% of trips made to the metro centre would have been made to NCL
factors influencing CBD decline -perceived as unclean, unsafe, ageing environment -increasing cost for up keep -land cheaper, profits increase -limited parking, pay -weather conditions -planning and policies (enterprise zones)
strategies being devised to help reverse the decline of city centres -business and marketing management to coordinate events -construction of all weather shopping -pedestrianisation -improve public transport -encouragement of specialist areas -extensive use of CCTV
two ways making CBDs safer for women 1.segregated transport 2.improvements can be made to the street environment
making CBD safer for women segregated transport -separate compartments on trains and night buses -priority taxis after 10pm (Manchester 'lady cab' -formal licensing of certain vehicles so that all private hire vehicles are registered and regulated
making CBD safer for women improvements can be made to street environement -CCTV, widespread -better maintenance of street lighting -help points at key locations with emergency alarms connect to the police -more seating in public places -transparent bus shelters
many cities encouraging development functions other than retailing -establishing theme areas (gay area in Manchester) -Leisure facilities, arenas, restaurants (NOTTs) -construction of new offices, homes, hotels -developing nightlife (leeds) -street entertainment (London) -flagship attractions (photographic museum, Bradford)
waste management methods disposal incineration landfill
advantages to landfill 1.convenient and cheap 2.can be hygienic 3.gas extraction systems, gas is pumped out and flared off or burnt to generate electricity MUMBAI- reduced 2.2million tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2020
disadvantages to landfill 1.toxic chemicals can leak out 2.wind blown litter, vermin 3.decaying matter produces methane gas 4.methane gas is explosive and is a strong greenhouse gas -COSTS £40 MILLION TO DISPOSE OF NAPPIES 5.running out of space
advantages to incineration 1.generate energy 2.reduces waste in landfill 3.reduces use of fossil fuels 21,000 TONNES OF CO2 EMISSIONS REDUCED IN SHEFFIELD
disadvantages to incineration 1. not fully sustainable 2.produces some CO2 and other emissions
waste management methods recycling methods 1.physical reprocessing 2.biological reprocessing (composting)
physical reprocessing advantages 1.reusing material 2. convenient to consumer -GERMANY< DRINKS COMPANIES CHARGE A DEPOSIT FOR DRINKS, WHICH CAN BE RETURNED ONCE GIVEN BACK
physical reprocessing disadvantages 1. start up costs are high value of materials is low 3.householders unwilling to sort material
biological reprocessing advantages 1.sustainable 2.decreases the amount in landfill 3. biogas is produced 4.renewable energy source
biological reprocessing disadvantages 1. plants are expensive 2. has to be properly managed to ensure no contaminates eg METALS 3. soil can be polluted causing harm to consumer
landfill tax? is payable on every tonne of waste sent to landfill -first introduced in 1996 -current rate (2012/13) £72 per tonne -government set to increase this by £8 per tonne each year
waste management CASE STUDY CURITIBA 1."garbage that is not garbage" separate trash in organic and inorganic 2."garbage purchase" in low income areas, 8-10kg waste gets bus tickets, 52 communities 3.provided jobs to homeless and recovering alcoholics, excess money reinvested
waste management CASE STUDY fresher for longer 1. to produce foood waste through functional roles of packaging 2.increase in shelf life 3.vaccum packed meat (M&S and waitrose) -reduced by 75% -extra 5 days life
waste management CASE STUDY changing our thinking NORTH TYNESIDE weekly collections 2.provided rewards 3.roadshow 1- focus on waste and minimization 4.roadshow 2-focus on wash, squash, recycle 5.monthly draw £100
waste management CASE STUDY NHS NEWCASTLE WASTE AUDITS -alternatives to the plastic box, BIOBIN made out of paper -lighter, cheaper, saves £13,500
name reasons how and why is urban traffic is increasing? 1.large working population-suburb to suburb 2.economic growth in retailing- online shops 3.growth of urban areas-higher incomes in the city, increase car ownership 4.growth in the no. of journeys- distance travelled, leisure purposes
London Congestion Charge ROAD SCHEMES -since 2003 -£8 per day -discounts available to greenest cars (100% hybrid) -traffic fallen by 21% -bus passengers increase by 45% -scheme paid for itself with 18 months -carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions down by 12%
Boris Bicycles ROAD SCHEMES -cycle hire scheme -with two weeks it had it millionth ride -10,000 bicycles -cost 140£ million -first 30 minutes free -helped air pollution -impact on Londoners health
Curitiba, Brazil buses ROAD SCHEMES -1600 buses -used by 1.4 million people a day -bus lanes -fares are cheap -one single ticket -uses 30% less fuel -lowest air pollution in Brazil -car use is 25% lower than rest of Brazil
1002 rio earth summit decided pollution problems, environmental issues hazards and poverty would be priorities in 21st century
MUMBAI LOCAL IMPROVEMENTS -slum sanitation program set up 1995, built 330 new communal toliet blocks -could followBRAZILIAN MODEL- SITE AND SERVICE
los Angeles donut city -inner city industries, car ans steel closed -business followed people out to the suburbs -modern high tech industries wanted more space car parks etc edge city ONTARIO ANAHEIM
BANGKOK SOLUTIONS -BMTA responsible for managing -increased military spending by 30%
bangkok solutions 1 skytrain -90s 'skytrain' 1997 financial crash -opened 1999 link northern to eastern -target 600,000 users daily -extensions approved in 07 progress slow -underground system opened in 04, same areas as skytrain
bangkok solutions 2 bus transport -carry 3mn passengers a day -ageing vehicles and oil prices make it hard -2010 'bus rapid transport' -bus lanes -5 routes opneded in 10, 16km, 12 stations
bangkok solutions 3 boat and ferry -never carry volumes -500,000 passengers
boris bicycles 10,000 millioneth rider in 2 weeks 140m barclays paid 25m first 30 minutes free -uni Cambridge believe impact on health
london congestion charge -introduced 03 extended 07 -8£ traffic fallen by 21% bus passenger increase 45% nitrous oxide 12% accidents down 5%
problems with congestion charges cars diverting decline in business, customers reluctant to drive in AA say recent change in traffic lights and road works
gentrification Islington 60s middle class people began to buy properties because -well connected (Angel station) -houses were large and attractive -could renovate 1996130000 to 430000 2008
gentrification Islington negatives -difficult for people on lower salaries to live in the area -forced out or into social housing 2007- 8th most deprived area second highest rate of child poverty, high crime rate
alive after 5 Newcastle Alive after Five”. Since October 2010, Alive after Five has introduced permanent late night opening with shops open until 8pm weekdays and 7pm Saturdays in Newcastle City Centre with thousands of free parking spaces
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