Evolution

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Flashcards by kaitlynkx20, updated more than 1 year ago
kaitlynkx20
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Cards for Bio test on 12/13/13
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Evolution A change in species over time
What are the types of evolution? Geological and organic
What is geological evolution? Changes in the Earth
What is organic evolution? The evolution of species and populations
What provides evidence for evolution? -Geological records -fossils -comparative anatomy -comparative embryology -comparative biochemistry -comparative cytology
What are geological records? Data to support Earth's evolution.
What is a fossil? Remains in whole or part format of organisms.
What are some ways that fossils are preserved? -sedimentary rock -amber -ice -tar -footprints (mud)
What are the ways of dating fossils? -radioactive carbon dating -layers of sedimentary rock
What is comparative anatomy? a process that compares bones and organs of different organisms.
What are homologous structures? Common structures in organisms that prove common ancestry.
What are analogous structures? Structures in organisms that are very different and prove no common ancestry.
What is adaptive radiation? Organisms that come from a common ancestor but form separate niches due to environmental change.
What is comparative biochemistry? compares how similar the DNA molecules are of different organisms.
What is comparative embryology? Comparing of organisms in the womb from 1-10 weeks.
What is comparative cytology? comparing of cell structure.
What did Lamark believe? He believed in use and disuse. He believed that species only had traits they needed. He believed in acquired characteristics.
What did Weisman do? Weisman proved Lamark's ideas on evolution wrong.
What did Darwin believe? -natural selection -survival of the fittest
What does the theory of natural selection include? 1. overproduction 2. Struggle for existence 3. Survival of the fittest 4. Transmission of favorable traits
What is overproduction? All organisms do their niche which is to find food, shelter, avoid predators and reproduce.
What is struggle for existence? limiting factors: -competition -out of food -space -disease
What is survival of the fittest? Only organisms with favorable traits will survive
What is transmission of a favorable trait? To obtain a favorable trait through sexual reproduction (creates variation) and mutation (a change in DNA)
What are vestigial structures? Ancestors used these structures which we have but do not have any use for.
What is a phenotype? Physical traits that are visible.
What is an allele? A gene for a contrasting trait.
What is a genotype? Genetic makeup.
What does homozygous mean? Both alleles are dominant.
What does heterozygous mean? One allele is dominant and one is recessive
What is a gamete? Sex cells with half the number of chromosomes from each parent. Egg and sperm cells.
What are somatic cells? Body cells. These cells have twice the number of chromosomes when compared to gametes.
What is the law of dominance? When crossing 2 homozygous alleles, the dominant trait will always appear in the phenotype of the offspring
What is the law of segregation? The recessive trait can appear in the offspring depending on the sorting and recombination of the alleles.
What is co-dominance? Both alleles are present
What is incomplete dominance? Blend of alleles
What are sexlinked traits? traits attached to the sex chromosomes (attached to X only)
What is the Hardy-Weinburg Equillibrium? A theory that described a stable non-evolving population in which allele frequency doesn't change.
What needs to happen for a population to be stable? -The population size must be large -The population must be isolated from other populations -there must be no mutations -mating must be random -no natural selection
What is point mutation? Is one of the bases in DNA is different.
What is genetic drift? change in the gene pool due to chance. ex: the bottleneck effect, the founder effect
what is the bottleneck effect? caused by natural disasters. results in a loss of genetic variation.
What is the founder effect? When a small population breaks away from the original population to colonize a new area.
What is gene flow? The movement of alleles into and out of a population.
What is divergent evolution? Occurs when a population becomes isolated from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing speciation.
What is convergent evolution? when an organism inhabit the same selective pressures but are not related. analogous structures
What is co-evolution? Evolution in 2 interacting in species, mutual evolution.
What is parallel evolution? Two related species that have similar environmental adaptation but live in different parts of the world.
What is gradualism? small slow changes over time.
What is punctuated equilibrium? Quick rapid changes over long periods of time. The actual rate of evolution.
What is stabilizing natural selection? There are no extremes, almost every organism is on average.
What is disruptive natural selection? Only mostly extremes are present.
What is directional natural selection? When one extreme shifts to another.
What are naturally resistant organisms? Some organisms are evolved to resist some selecting agents.
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