Final Exam Review Integrated Science Fall 2013

Brian Hedspeth
Flashcards by Brian Hedspeth, updated more than 1 year ago
Brian Hedspeth
Created by Brian Hedspeth almost 7 years ago
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9th Finals Flashcards on Final Exam Review Integrated Science Fall 2013, created by Brian Hedspeth on 12/13/2013.

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Question Answer
What are the three types of rock? Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary
If granite undergoes high temperatures and high pressures at depth within Earth, what type of rock will be formed? a metamorphic rock
A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface is called an ____. intrusive igneous rock
A rock that forms from cooling lava extrusive igneous rock
When large masses of magma solidify far below Earth’s surface, they form igneous rocks that have coarse-grained texture
Lava that cools so quickly that ions do not have time to arrange themselves into crystals will form igneous rocks with a ____. glassy texture
What is the correct order of sedimentary rock formation? weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation
Fossils are only found in ____. sedimentary rocks
A fault is ____. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred
What is the source of an earthquake? focus
What causes earthquakes? elastic rebound
What are the three types of seismic waves? Primary Secondary Surface
Which seismic waves travel most rapidly? P waves
Which seismic waves are the most destructive? surface waves
What is the minimum number of seismic stations that is needed to determine the location of an earthquake’s epicenter? three
A travel-time graph can be used to find the ____. distance to the epicenter of an earthquake
The distance between a seismic station and the earthquake epicenter is determined from the ____. arrival times of P and S waves
An earthquake’s magnitude is a measure of the ____. size of seismic waves it produces
What instrument records earthquake waves? seismograph
The amount of shaking produced by an earthquake at a given location is called the ____. intensity
The trace that records an earthquake from seismic instruments is called a ____. seismogram
How much of an increase in wave amplitude is seen from an earthquake measuring 5.4 on the Richter scale compared to one measuring 4.4? ten times
A tsunami can occur when there is vertical movement at a fault under ____. the ocean floor
Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires? Earthquakes can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines.
What layers of Earth make up the lithosphere? the crust and upper mantle
Earth’s thin, rocky outer layer crust
boundary between the crust and the mantle The Moho
Through which Earth layer are S waves NOT transmitted? outer core
Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form one major supercontinent
The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called Pangaea
The main reason Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis was rejected He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents
the ________ is divided into plates lithosphere
plate boundary where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere transform fault boundary
boundary where two plates move together convergent boundary
results when divergence occurs between two oceanic plates seafloor spreading
forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate a subduction zone
According to the property of paleomagnetism iron-rich rocks show the location of the magnetic poles at the time of their formation
age of seafloor sediments change with increasing distance from the ocean ridge Age increases
A magma’s viscosity is directly related to its silica content
Highly explosive volcanoes tend to have what type of magma? high silica, high viscosity, and higher gas content
Most of the information about Earth’s interior was obtained by studying ____. earthquake waves
The greatest concentration of metals occurs in Earth’s core
One kind of evidence that supports Wegener’s hypothesis is that ____. fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents
According to the theory of plate tectonics, ____. the lithosphere is divided into plates
What is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary? the San Andreas Fault
Strips of alternating magnetic polarities found in rocks in the ocean basins ____. provide evidence for seafloor spreading
How does the age of seafloor sediments change with increasing distance from the ocean ridge? Age increases
The main source of downward convection flow in the mantle is called ____. slab-pull
Which list places the magma types in order of decreasing viscosity (most viscous listed first)? rhyolitic, andesitic, basaltic
A volcanic bomb is a ____. piece of semi-molten rock ejected as glowing lava
The particles produced in volcanic eruptions are called ____. pyroclastic material
Large particles of hardened lava ejected from a volcano are called ____. blocks
What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments? cinder cone
The broad, slightly dome-shaped volcanoes of Hawaii are ____. shield volcanoes
A volcano that is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic deposits is a ____. composite cone volcano
The most violent volcanic eruptions are associated with what type of volcano? composite cones
A large depression in a volcano caldera
The landform formed when the volcanic pipe remains after most of the cone has been eroded is called a ____. volcanic neck
Structures that form from the cooling and hardening of magma beneath Earth’s surface are ____. plutons
Which type of intrusive feature forms when magma is injected into fractures cutting across preexisting rock layers? dike
What horizontal intrusive igneous body is formed when magma is injected parallel to sedimentary bedding planes? sill
Magma forms when solid rock in the crust and upper mantle ____. melts
Magma tends to rise towards Earth’s surface primarily because ____. rocks become less dense when they melt
The volcanic landforms at divergent ocean plate boundaries are ____. oceanic ridges
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the ____. Ring of Fire
What are the major types of mountains? folded, fault-block, volcanic, upwarped
At a continental-continental convergent boundary, ____. folded mountains result
What is the major type of stress that occurs at convergent plate boundaries? compressional stress
Coastal plains are also reffered to as marshes
To determine distance east and west, you would use lines of longitude
Areas of equal elevation are connected by _____lines. contour
To detrmine the location on a map, you can use longitude and latitude
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