Fungi, Plants and Animals

aurora.lawrence
Flashcards by aurora.lawrence, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
aurora.lawrence
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Unit 1: Exam questions
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What is hyphae? - tiny threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane & covered by a cell well (body of most fungi)
What is mycelium? - interwoven mat of hyphae (feeding structure of fungi)
How are Fungi useful? - important as decomposers, recycle nutrients
How are Fungi harmful? - parastic fungus can infect and damage crops
Fungi vs Plants Similarities: can't move, eukaryotic Differences (Fungi): heterotrophic, need oxygen, decomposers, reproduce with spores, cell walls made of chitin Differences (Plants): need carbon dioxide, autotrophs, undergo photosynthesis, reproduce with seeds, cell walls made of cellulose
How have plants adapted to live on land? - ability to stand and grow - tissues to transport nutrients, waste and water - strategies to reduce water loss
Gymnosperms vs Angiosperms - Angiosperms: -flowering - seeds are enclosed -ovary develops into fruit Gymnosperms: plants that bear "naked" seeds (not enclosed)
Define the concept of alternation of generations in plants All plants undergo a life cycle that takes them through both haploid and diploid generations. The multicellular diploid plant structure is called the sporophyte, which produces spores through meiotic (asexual) division. The multicellular haploid plant structure is called the gametophyte, which is formed from the spore and give rise to the haploid gametes. The fluctuation between these diploid and haploid stages that occurs in plants is called the alternation of generations.
Main Features of a Leaf Chloroplasts: absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Xylem: transports water Phloem: transports food Stomata: exchanges gases Guard Cells: surrounds stomata, controls how open or closed they are to regulate water loss Mesophyll: contains chloroplasts Epidermis: protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange
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