Josh mid-sem exam

Fiona Dunger
Flashcards by , created almost 4 years ago

Notes for joshs exam

Fiona Dunger
Created by Fiona Dunger almost 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Acetylcholine A compound which occurs throughout the nervous system, in which it functions as a neurotransmitter
An increase in size of a certain muscle Acute hypertrophy
Steady state an unvarying condition in a physical process
Cerebellum the part of the brain that coordinates and regulates muscular activity
Tissue that surrounds the whole muscle Epimysium
Exentensibility the capability of being stretched
Isometric contraction where the muscle generates force without changing in length
the part of the cerebral cortex in the brain in which originate the nerve impulses that initiate voluntary muscular activity Motor cortex
Motor unit Controls muscle fibres, allowing them to contract at the same time with full force
detects changes in muscle length and then force muscles to contract muscle spindle
Myofibril elongated contractile threads found in striated muscle cells
the smallest functional, contractive unit of a myofibril. They occur as repeating units, extending from our Z-line to the next along the length of the myofibril sarcomere
anabolic synthesis of molecules
Actin a protein which forms the contractile filaments of muscle and is also involved in motion in other types of cell
a fibrous protein which works together with actin to form contractile filaments of muscle cells and is also involved in motion in other types of cell myosin
The breakdown of molecules Catabolic
Chronic hypertrophy long term growth of a muscle
Acetyl CoA conveys carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the krebs cycle to be oxidised for energy production
A water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes trigylycerides in lipoproteins Lipoprotein lipase
Creatine kinase enzyme used to take phosphate from creatine phosphate and bind it to ADP to create ATP
the component of the cytoplasm of a cell, within which various organelles and particles are suspended cytosol
Glycolysis the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid
Hexokinase is the first enzyme of glycolysis and adds phosphate to glucose
organelle found in most cells where the biochemical processes of repirationg and energy production occur Mitochondrion
Oxygen carried throughout the body in red blood cells and into muscles
Phosphorylase an enzyme which introduces a phosphate group into an organic molecule
the addition of a phosphoryl group to a molecule. Turns proteins on and off Phosphorylation
is the end product of glycolysis and is converted into acetyl CoA when there is sufficient oxygen.when there is insufficient oxygen, it is converted into lactic acid Pyruvate
Lactate is a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis and can lead to fatigue if the lactate threshold is passed
Glycogenolysis the metabolic process of breaking down glycogen into glucose
Malate-Aspartate shuttle is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis
a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors Electron transport chain
is a compound that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis especially to ADP ATP - adenosine triphosphate
is a compound made up of only 2 phosphates which when combined with another phosphate isconverted into ATP ADP- Adenosine diphosphate
is produced when two ADP are combined. When this happens 1 ATP is created along with 1 AMP AMP- Adenosine monophosphate
Golgi tendon detects tension in muscles and when the muscle is too tense then the golgi tendon will relax the muscle
Muscle fatigue where the muscles capacity to produce maximal voluntary action is reduced
Slow oxidative muscle fibres are highly resistant to fatigue and can work for longer Type 1 (SO)
Fast Glycolytic muscle fibres fatigue very quickly and only last during short bursts of energy (100m sprint) Type 2b (FG)
Fast oxidative glycolytic muscle fibres are in the middle of SO and FG when it comes to when they are used and how long they are used for Type 2a (FOG)
DOMS Delayed onset muscle soreness is where stiffness and soreness is felt several hours after exercise. This is due to miniscule tears in muscle fibres
Allosteric enzyme enzymes that change their conformational ensemble upon binding of an effector, which results in a change in binding affinity at a different ligand binding site
Homeostasis a state of physiological stability