Organelles!

gina_sweetangel0
Flashcards by gina_sweetangel0, updated more than 1 year ago
gina_sweetangel0
Created by gina_sweetangel0 about 5 years ago
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Organelle Names and Functions!

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Question Answer
Eukaryotic Cells contains membrane bound nucleus and specialized organelles (all have genetic material, cytoplasm and cell membrane)
Nucleus 'control center' stores & replicates DNA, controls metabolism, reproduction and growth of cell
Nucleolus inside nucleus contains RNA, protein, and chromatin makes ribosomal RNA
Nucleus Pore -controls passage of marcomolecules from cytoplasm to nucleus -tiny openings on the nuclear envelope that allow water and ions to pass
Smooth ER -manufacturing and packaging system -creates and stores lipids, steroids -synthesizes lipid (-containing) molecules -can also detoxify alcohol in liver -also produce hormones in ovaries/testes -no ribosomes (only on RER)
Ribosomes -made up of RNA and proteins -synthesis of polypeptides -makes proteins that repair cell or direct processes -diff in prokar and eukar (reason for antibiotics working only on bacteria)
Cell membrane has phospholipid bi layer with embedded proteins
Golgi Apparatus 'post office'; modifies, sorts, and packages proteins to be secreted, transports lipids, creates lysosomes, makes vesicles
Vesicle a membrane bound sac used to transport and storage -formed from Golgi bodies
Lysosomes -contains digestive enzymes that break down food molecules (ie. proteins and complex molecules) -catalyzing hydrolysis - [SPECIALIZED VESICLE] -work in areas that are oxygen poor and low pH
Peroxisome -found in liver -hold enzymes that break down excess fatty acids (oxidase, require oxygen to undergo redox reaction) -participate in synthesis of bile acid -hydrogen peroxide byproduct -get rid of toxic material ie. booze -
Vacuole vesicle that stores water, ions, macromolecules, sugars, amino acids -big in plants
Chloroplast -in plant cells -site for photosynthesis-->glucose -**own DNA, self duplicates, endosymbiotic theory
Mitochondria -POWERHOUSE -site for ATP; organic molecules are oxidized to obtain energy -stored energy becomes usable -cite for cellular respiration -**own DNA, from yo momma, self duplicating
Mircotubules -thick fibers, proteins that form hollow tubes -maintain shape of cell, facilitate organelle movement, assist in cell division
Intermediate Filaments -cable shaped -help maintain shape, involved in muscle contraction
Mircofilaments -thinnest fibers -help maintain cell shape -and assist in cell division
FAULTY ORGANELLE DISORDER malfunction of the lysosomes - Tay-Sachs disease - basically the molecules that suppose to be broken down accumulate instead because of the deficiency in one of the lysosomal enzymes. - several months after birth, symptoms begin to appear as ganglioside accumulate higher and higher inside the nerve cells and will make the infants become irritable, listless and may have seizures. -Blindness, deafness and paralysis follow - affected children usually die by the age of 5 (no cure)
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