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Flashcards on TRANSITION METALS, created by ashiana121 on 02/09/2016.

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Question Answer
What is the main characteristics of the transition metals? They have an incomplete d sub-shell
When forming ions, what orbital do the transition metals lose electrons from first? 4s
Why isnt Zn2+ a transition metal? Zn can only form a 2+ ion which has a complete d orbital
What is a complex? A central metal ion surrounded by ligands
What is a ligand? An atom, ion or molecule which can donate a lone pair of electrons
What type of bonding is involved in complex formation? Coordinate
What is a coordinate bond? When the shared pair of electrons in the covalent bond both come from only one of the bonding species
What is the coordination number? The number of coordinate bonds formed to a central metal ion
If ligands are ________ they form one coordinate bond each to the central metal ion? Unidentate
What do we call the ligands if they can each make two coordinate bonds because they each have two atoms with lone pairs? Bidentate
If a ligand can make multiple coordinate bonds it is _________ Multidentate
NH2CH2CH2NH2 is a ________ ligand Bidentate
Give another example of a bidentate ligand ethandioate C2O4 2-
Give an example of a multidentate ligand EDTA 4-
If there are 3 bidentate ligands attached to a metal ion, what is the coordination number? 6
What is haem? An Iron (II) complex with a multidentate ligand
A complex with small ligands (H2O, NH3) commonly forms __________ structures Octrahedral
What shape do complexes form with larger complexes such as Cl-? Tetrahedral
Cisplatin has a _____ ______ structure Square planar
Which ion commonly forms colourless, linear complexes? Ag+
Colour changes can arise from changes in what three things? - Oxidation state - Coordination number - Ligand
Write the equation for which [Co(H2O)6]2+ changes its ligand to Cl and also its coordination number. Describe the colour change. [Co(H2O)6]2+ + 4 Cl- ---> [CoCl4]2- + 6 H20 Pink to blue
Write an equation and describe the colour change for when [Co(H2O)6]2+ reacts with ammonia. Which, out of the three, is the colour change a result of? [Co(H2O)6]2+ + 6 NH3 -----> [Co(NH3)6]2+ + 6 H20 Pink to straw Due to change in ligand
Write the equation for when [Co(NH3)6]2+ (aq) is oxidised. What two things change? [Co(NH3)6]2+ (aq) ------> [Co(NH3)6]3+ + e- Colour changes from straw to brown Oxidation state changes from +2 to +3
Colour changes arise from _________ _________ from the ground state to excited states between different d orbitals Electronic transitions
A portion of _______ ______ is absorbed to promote d electrons to higher energy levels Visable light
The light that is not absorbed is _________ to give the substance colour transmitted
Ligands cause the 5d orbitals to split into how many energy levels? Two
What is the equation linking the colour and the freq of light absorbed with the energy difference between the split orbitals? ΔE = hv v is freq of light absorbed h is Plancks constant 6.62607004 × 10-34 ΔE is the energy difference between the split orbitals
What colour will a solution appear if it absorbs orange light? Blue
Changing the lignad/coordination number will alter the energy split between the d orbitals, changing ΔE and hence... The frequency of light absorbed
Explain why Sc (Sc3+) has no colour. Sc3+ hasnt got any d electrons left to move around, therefore there wont be an enery transfer equal to that of visable light
Explain why Zn2+ and Cu+ have no colour. Their d shells are full so there is no space for the electrons to transfer, therefore there is no energy transfer equal to that of visible light
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