GCSE AQA Chemistry 1 Fuels & The Environment

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Mind map showing information about crude oil (uses and properties), how it's used as a fuel and environmental problems.

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Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 3 years ago
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GCSE AQA Chemistry 1 Fuels & The Environment
1 Crude Oil
1.1 Mixture of hydrocarbons
1.1.1 Fuels made of carbon & hydrogen
1.1.2 No chemical bonds - keep their original properties
1.1.2.1 Can separate using fractional distillation
1.1.2.1.1 Column works continuously - heated crude oil pumped in at bottom
1.1.2.1.1.1 Vaporised oil rises up & various fractions tapped off as they condense
1.2 Properties
1.2.1 Made up of hydrocarbons - alkanes
1.2.1.1 Chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
1.2.1.1.1 Different length chains
1.2.1.1.2 Carbon forms 4 bonds & hydrogen forms 1
1.2.1.2 First 4: Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
1.2.1.2.1 Forms as many bonds as possible - saturated
1.2.1.3 Shorter molecules - more runny (less viscous)
1.2.1.3.1 Shorter molecules - more volatile
1.2.1.3.1.1 Shorter molecules - more flammable
1.2.2 General formula: CnH2n+2
1.3 Uses
1.3.1 Volatilty - refinery gas - good as bottled gas
1.3.1.1 Petrol - higher boiling point - liquid
1.3.1.1.1 Viscous hydrocarbons - lubricants
2 Crude oil as a fuel
2.1 Burn cleanly so good fuels
2.1.1 Transport, central heating, power stations
2.2 Also provides raw materials for making chemicals - plastics
2.3 Alternatives are possible but things are set up for oil fractions - easier, cheaper & more reliable
2.4 Will run out - non-renewable fuel
2.4.1 New reserves being discovered & technology improving
2.4.2 Should start conserving & finding alternatives
3 Environmental problems
3.1 Burning fossil fuels
3.1.1 Power stations & cars
3.1.2 hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water vapour
3.1.2.1 Energy (heat) also produced
3.1.2.2 If fuel contains sulphur impurities - sulphur dioxide released
3.1.2.2.1 If enough oxygen - complete combustion, if not then partial
3.1.2.2.1.1 Soot, unburnt fuel & carbon monoxide released
3.1.2.2.1.1.1 Global Dimming - particles reflect sunlight back into Space
3.1.2.2.2 Causes acid rain - sulphur dioxide mixes with clouds to form dilute sulphuric acid
3.1.2.2.2.1 Same with nitrogen oxides
3.1.2.2.2.2 Plants & animals die, kills trees, damages limestone buildings & statues & possible health probs
3.1.2.2.2.3 Reducing sulphur emissions
3.1.2.2.2.3.1 Can be removed before burning - £££
3.1.2.2.2.3.1.1 Power stations have Acid Gas Scrubbers - take harmful gas out before release
3.2 Increasing carbon dioxide = Climate Change
3.2.1 Causes global warming, changing rainfall patterns, flooding
3.3 Alternative fuels being developed
3.3.1 Ethanol - plant material - biofuel from fermentation
3.3.1.1 Carbon neutral, engines need to be converted, stop growing crops
3.3.2 Biodiesel - vegetable oils
3.3.2.1 Carbon neutral, don't need to convert engines, can't make enough to replace diesel, expensive
3.3.3 Hydrogen gas - electrolysis of water
3.3.3.1 Clean, need special engine, not widely available, hard to store

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