GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Salts & Electrolysis

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Mind map showing information about acids, alkalis, making salts, electrolysis, extraction of aluminium and electroplating.

Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 3 years ago
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GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Salts & Electrolysis
1 Acids & Alkalis
1.1 Acid: substance with pH less than 7, form H+ ions in water
1.2 Base: substance with pH greater than 7
1.2.1 Alkali: base that dissolves in water, form OH- ions in water
1.3 Neutralisation: acid + base --> salt + water
1.4 Acids & metals
1.4.1 Acid + metal (oxide/hydroxide) --> salt + hydrogen
1.5 Ammonia
1.5.1 Dissolves in water --> alkaline solution
1.5.2 Ammonia + Nitric acid --> Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate - good fertiliser, has nitrogen from 2 sources, plants need nitrogen to make proteins
2 Making salts
2.1 Making soluble salts using a metal/insoluble base
2.1.1 Filter out excess, evaporate & crystallise
2.2 Making soluble salts using an alkali
2.2.1 Neutralise, repeat to remove indicator, evaporate & cystallise
2.3 Making insoluble salts - precipitation reactions
2.3.1 Filter salt out, wash & dry
3 Electrolysis
3.1 Splitting up with electricity - requires electrolyte
3.1.1 Contains free electrons - conduct electricity
3.1.2 Needs flow of electrons, electrons taken away at +ve electrode & given to other ions at -ve electrode
3.2 Oxidation & reduction
3.2.1 Oxidation Is Loss of electrons
3.2.2 Reduction Is Gain of electrons
3.3 Reactivity affects products formed
3.3.1 At -ve electrode - if metal ions & H+ ions present, metal ions will stay in solution if metal is more reactive than hydrogen - keener to stay as ions At +ve electrode - if OH- & halide ions are present, molecules of chlorine formed, if no halide, oxygen formed
3.4 Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution produces...
3.4.1 Hydrogen
3.4.2 Chlorine Bleach & plastics
3.4.3 Sodium hydroxide Soap
3.5 Extraction of aluminium
3.5.1 Cryolite lowers temp, & costs
3.5.2 Electrodes made of carbon - CO2 - 'eaten away'
3.5.3 Aluminium forms at -ve electrode Oxygen forms at +ve electrode
3.6 Electroplating
3.6.1 At -ve electrode - metal object you want to plate At +ve electrode - pure metal

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