AP Psychology Vocabulary Flashcards

Flashcards by bcarlton, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by bcarlton over 5 years ago


These are my flashcards for vocabulary.

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Question Answer
mode the most frequently occurring score
normal distribution forms a bell shaped or symmetrical curve ( upside down U)
standard deviation shows how far scores vary from the mean (average) score
median the middle score; score that divides a frequency distribution exactly in half; so that the same number of the scores lie on each side of it
random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
dependent variable what is being measured in an experiment ; the research variable that " depends" on the independent variable
zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between two (2) variables ex. hat size and shoe size
correlation coefficient a number value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
longitudinal study studies a single individual or a group over an extended period of time. provide in depth information but can be expensive and time consuming
positive correlation +1.00 ( closest to it); means 2 variables move in the same direction. Ex. positive relationship between smoking and lung cancer
negative correlation -1.00 ( closest to it); means two variables move in opposite directions
cross- sectional study compares individuals at various ages at one point in time. ( one and done)
operational definitions statement of your procedures; identifies the IV & DV, sampling and assignment
mean the average; sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores
ethical principles for animal research 1.) research must have a clear, scientific purpose; 2.) provide humane living conditions for animals; 3.) legally obtain animals; 4.) least amount of suffering
random assignment division of the sample in an experiment into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being put in any group or conditions. It is not possible for studies dealing with differences between sexes and age groups.
population all of the individuals in the group to which the theory applies. A sample is a subgroup of the population that participates in the study.
random selection choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample
reliability consistency or repeat ability of results. split halves reliability compares scores on one half to the other half. test retest reliability compares scores on the same test taken at different times. interrater reliability compares scores by different scorers of the same test.
quantitative data information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling. nominal scale uses numbers to name something, can be used to count cases. ordinal scale can be ranked, ordered. numbers can not be averaged.
surveys descriptive method; uses questions or interviews
researcher bias tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis and ignore contradictory evidence
participant bias tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed
correlational studies researchers observe or measure a relationship between variables
placebo physical or physiological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group, but contains no active ingredients. placebo effect- response to belief that the IV will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the IV.
quasi- experiment measurement of DV ( dependent variable) when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible. often applies to studies involving sex or age of participants. can suggest cause and effect.
skewed distribution distribution with most scores squeezed to one end, few scores stretch out like a tail. negatively skewed- skewed to the left. positively skewed- skewed to the right. mean pulled in direction of tail away from the median; median measures centraility best.
case studies research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal experiments Ex, Phineas Gage.
68-95-99.7 rule means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean ( average) ; approx. 95% of all scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean; 99.7 % of all scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean.
central tendency describes average of a distribution, median is the middle score when data is ordered by size. mean is arithmetic average of scores. mode is frequent score, bimodal distribution has 2 most frequent scores, multimodal distribution has 3 or more
confounding variables factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable. example; experimenter bias ( also called expectancy effect ) - occurs when a researchers expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results
descriptive statistics numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample. can be pictured as histogram or frequency polygon.
ethical guidelines for human research 1. ) informed consent; 2.) voluntary participation; 3.) debriefing; 4.) confidentiality
experiment research method that involves manipulation of an independent variable (IV) under controlled conditions and measurement of its effect on a dependent variable (DV). only method that can establish cause and effect between IV and DV
experimental group group that you experimenting on; recieves the independent variable (IV)
hypothesis prediction of how 2 or more factors are likely to be related . can be phrased as ''if''... ''then''..., statement . often called an educated guess. an experiment tests a hypothesis.
inferential statistics statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions; uses rules to evaluate probability that a correlation or difference between groups reflects a real relationship, not just chance (p) is the measure of real difference , p< .05 or p<.01 needed
naturalsitic observations observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
normal distribution represented by a normal curve ( upside down u shape)- symmetric with mean, mode, and median the same score; 2 sides are mirror images; represents data about how human traits are distributed through population, examples,SAT,IQ
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