Computing - OCR - GCSE - Key Terms

Josh Anderson
Flashcards by Josh Anderson, updated more than 1 year ago
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GCSE Computing Flashcards on Computing - OCR - GCSE - Key Terms, created by Josh Anderson on 02/29/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Algorithm A process to be followed in problem-solving, usually by computers.
Assembler A computer program which translates assembly language to an object file or machine language format.
Bandwidth The frequency that a particular signal is transmitted at.
Bespoke Software Software that is specifically developed for a specific organisation/user.
CPU Central Processing Unit - Most processes take place here - the brains of a computer.
Cache Memory An auxiliary memory from which high-speed retrieval is possible.
Client-Server A computer system in which a central server provides data to a number of networked workstations.
Clockspeed The number of calculations a CPU can do per second.
Compiler A computer program which translates source code in a programming language into another computer language.
Compression The same amount of data transmitted by using a smaller number of bits.
Compression of Images Minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without degrading the quality of the image.
DNS Server Domain Name System - converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses. (When a URL is typed in, it returns an IP address)
Data Handling Software An application which allows the effective storage of data and records in a logical way - The front end of a database.
Fail Over A procedure by which a system automatically switches to another of the same when it detects a failure.
Fetch Execute Cycle The process by which a computer retrieves a program instruction from its memory.
Flash Memory An electric, non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Flat File Database A database with a single table.
HTTPS Safe websites that are protected against eavesdropping and attacks.
High Level Code Programming languages that are closer to human languages.
IP Address A unique string of numbers separated by full stops that identifies each computer.
Internal Storage The computer's internal hard drive - Primary storage device.
Interpreter A program that can analyse and execute a separate program line by line.
LAN Local Area Network - Connects devices in a relatively small area.
Loss-less Without loss of information.
Lossy Where unnecessary information is discarded.
MAC Address A unique identifier assigned to network interfaces.
Machine Code A programming language consisting of binary or hexidecimal instructions.
Magnetic Storage Storage which uses different patterns of magnetisation to store the data.
Off-the-shelf software Software that is ready-made and available for sale to the general public.
Opcode A portion of a machine language that specifies the operation to be performed.
Operand Any object that is capable of being manipulated in a computer program.
Operating System System software that manages computer hardware and computer software.
Peer to Peer When two or more devices are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer.
RAM Random access memory - Volatile storage (lost when power is lost).
ROM Read-only memory - Non-volatile storage. Takes a long time to be modified or not at all.
Relational Database A database with multiple tables.
Removable Storage Storage that is not permanently in the device.
Sampling The converting of an analogue sound signal into a digital file containing binary numbers.
Solid State Drive Storage that uses circuits as memory to store data persistently.
Standard ways of coding Efficient programming.
Translator A computer program that performs the translation of a program written in one programming language to another.
Utility Software Software designed to help analyse, configure, optimise, or maintain a computer.
Virtual Memory Memory that allows a computer to compensate for shortages of physical memory.
Hacking The practice of breaking into secure computer systems.
Virus A program designed to cause damage to a computer.
Spyware A program that runs in a computer system to gather information and pass it on to interested parties.
Firewall Used to prevent unauthorised requests from hackers to gain access to the network of computer systems via the Internet.
Capacity How much data can be stored in a storage device.
Speed How quickly data can be read/written.
Portability How easily the device can be moved.
Durability How well the device withstands stress.
Reliability How dependable the device is.
Optical Binary data stored in patterns/dots on a surface. LIGHT hits a dent and reflects differently, allowing the drive to detect differences and read data. Written by a laser 'burning' dents into the surface. CD, DVD, etc.
Magnetic Parts of storage surface magnetised or demagnetised to display data, read/write heads read whether on or off by detecting magnetism. Hard disk, tape, etc.
Solid-state Non-mechanical - no moving parts. Circuits with complex logic gates to retain and change data. Solid state drive, USB, etc.
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