7 Ability Tests

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D842 Flashcards on 7 Ability Tests, created by mifrrole on 04/17/2013.
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Ability Tests - Intro/Basics The single best predictor of job and training performance over wide variety of occupations (Hunter & Hunter 1984). Relatively low costs - most cost-effective tool, and relative ease of test administration. However, ability testing generally not used in isolation.
Ability Tests - 3 different types of model for intelligence 1 - Unifactorial models 2 - Multi-factorial models 3 Multi-hierarchical models
Ability Tests - Unifactorial First model attributed to Spearman (1904, 1927) - human abilities linked, to from overall intelligence "g" - a "psycho=physiological" energy, encompassing moral and social overtones. Spearman assumed "g" to be quantitative - serious flaw according to Kline, 1998. Model included error scores, a "will" factor, and "character", all ultimately contributing to the unitary construct - "g".
Ability Tests - Multifactorial - Thurstone 1938 Disagreed with Spearman's idea of unitary factor, but rather of several distinct and independent factors - identified 9 primary factors, each measuring an independent aspect of cognitive skill. (Numerical, Spatial, Perceptual, Memory, Induction, Deduction, Reasoning, Verbal, Words)
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - General Focus is on the content and organisation of knowledge.
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - 1 Horn & Cattell, 1956 The most widely accepted, with 5 second-order factors for intelligence: Fluid intelligence, Crystallised Intelligence, Visualisation, Retrieval, Cognitive speed; The first two being more important - fluid more with process, reasoning, and crystallised more with acquired knowledge and experience (culturally influenced)
Ability Tests - Multifactorial 2 - Guildford, 1956, 1959 Guildford's Cube, a 3-dimensional model, dimensions of content (e.g. visual, auditory etc.), products (e.g. units, classes, systems etc.) and operations (e.g. cognition, evaluation etc.) a 3-d 5x6x6 grid giving 180 combinations representing a specific and unique mental ability.
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - 2 Vernon 1950, 1961 Clear differentiation between verbally/educationally based intelligence, and spatially/mechanically based factors ("theoretical" vs. "practical" factors), which two formed the initial tier in the hierarchy of intelligence.
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - 3 Carroll, 1993 Used same first three sub-factors of general intelligence as Horn & Cattell, each further split into two: Fluid Intelligence (Inductive, and Sequential reasoning); Crystallised Intelligence (Lexical knowledge, and Foreign Language aptitude); Visual Perception (Visual imagery, and perceptual integration)
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - 4 Garner 1983 Per Searle, 2003, a more idiosyncratic model! Extends general intelligence to 7 factors, including personality and psychomotor aspects, as well as cognitive: Linguistic, Musical, Logical-mathematic, Spatial, Bodily-kinaesthetic, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal
Ability Tests - Multihierarchical - 5 Sternberg 1985 Model posits 3 main constructs: 1) Meta components, or executive functions (planning, monitoring and evaluating operations; 2) Performance (how solutions are arrived at); 3) Knowledge acquisition (encoding, combining encoded elements, then comparing coded elements)
Ability Tests - Choosing & Using 1 Generally 5 key factor areas, broadly as Guildford's differential model: Verbal, Numerical, Spatial, Dexterity and Sensory. Select test on basis of above, and respective level of difficulty assumed needed for the position. Use of Test Manuals, re domain - construction of the test, comparing one occupational group against another. Problems dealing with disabilities - how to adjust scoring, test conditions (e.g. dyslexia)
Ability Tests - Choosing & Using 2 Ability tests more objective than "face-to-face testing, hence lessening possible discrimination. Strong relationship between job performance and cognitive ability test scores, mean validity 0.3 - 0.45, which generalises across all occupational areas (Robertson & Smith, 2001); No clear evidence of any specific ability tests beingany more valid than general cognitive ability tests (Ree et al. 1994)
Ability Tests - Choosing & Using 3 - Maximal vs. Typical intelligence testing Ackerman and various colleagues (1989 - 1987) suggest Maximal testing may not be preferable to Typical, as much variance in job performance still unaccounted for. Suggest a wider model of Typical performance, including intelligence, but also personality and interest elements - TIP (Typical Intellectual Engagement -sic) tool.
Ability Testing - New forms - Tacit Ability Looks more at acquired knowledge, and goal-achievement using skills acquired from ongoing experience. (Sternberg & others) - no evidence of superiority to "g", has problems of sample size, restriction of range and other attenuation issues, possibly also cultural and context limitations. Also "Situational Judgement" testing - high correlation with general cognitive validity ~0.56 (McDaniel et al 2001) and evidence of lower racial discrimination (Clevenger et al 2001)
Ability Testing - New forms - Emotional Intelligence Concept due to Goleman 1996. Sporadic interest in some quarters; sometimes seen as a bit of a fad. Measures social intelligence taking into account own and other people's feelings. Little evidence supporting its criterion-related validity within occupational context. Weak underlying theory, more anecdotal than rigorous objectivity.
Ability Tests - Culture-free Testing Many models fail to some degree or other in this respect, as intelligence is generally regarded as culture-specific; Hence depends on individual's political and social context. Most current testing has Western slant.Perhaps best known near culture-free is Raven's Progressive Matrices test (1965), based on abstract reasoning. Difficult to relate to the work environment however, and can b difficult to assess and interpret. One simple aid is using applicant's own language (unless English is specifically important as the organisation's cultural basic language, thus communication is important!)
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