Unit 4 chem gr.12

A521
Flashcards by A521, updated more than 1 year ago
A521
Created by A521 about 7 years ago
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Flashcards on Unit 4 chem gr.12, created by A521 on 01/23/2014.

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Question Answer
Dynamic equilibrium A balance between forward and reverse processes occuring at the same rate
Solubility equilibrium A dynamic equilibrium between a solute and a solvent in a saturated solution in a closed system
Phase equilibrium A dynamic equillibrium betwen different states of a pure substance in a closed system
Chem reaction equilibrium Occurs in a closed system
Qauntitative reaction Where all of limiting reagent in consumed
What is the position of... No reaction <1%
Reactants favoured; Products favoured; Qauntitative; <50% > 50% > 99%
Homogeneous equillibria; Heterogeneous equilibria All entities are in the same phase(state of matter) Entities are different phases
K>> 1 The concentrations of the products are alot greater than reactants
K= approx 1 Concentrations of reactants and products are equal therefore at equilibrium
Le Chateliers principle When a chem system is disturbed by a change in property the system adjusts in a way that opposes the change
Variables affecting equilibrium: Concentration, temperature, volume
Variables with no effect on equilibrium Catalysts inert gases
Weak electrolytes Salts with low solubility in water
Solubility The concentration of a saturated solution of a solute in a particular solvent at a certain temperature.; it is the specific max concentration
Supersaturated solution A solution whose solute concentration exeeds equilibrium concentration
Spontaneous reaction A reaction that proceeds without continous outside assistance, given that it has the necessary activation energy.
1st law of thermodynamics Energy cant be created or destroyed only transfered
Bond energy The minimum energy required to break one mole of bonds between 2 or more atoms
Entropy, S A measure of the randomness or disorder of a system, or the surroundings
When will a system experience an increase in entropy? ( 3 things) -When Volume of a gaseous system increases - When temperature increases - when physical state changes from solid to liquid to gas, or from liquid to gas
2nd law of thermodynamics All changes Increase the entropy of the universe
3rd law of thermodynamics The entropy of a pure crystaline substance is 0 when T=0K
a to Bronsted Lowry acid is a proton ___________ Donor
a B-L base is a proton ___________ Acceptor
Amphoteric According to B-L model, it is a substance capable of acting as an acid or base in different chemical reactions, it may donate or accept a proton
The stronger the acid, the _________ its conjugate base Weaker
A conjugate acid base pair differ only by a ________ Proton. (The acid has one more proton than its conjugate base)
A strong acid has a ____ attraction for protons, while a strong base has a very _________ attraction for protons Weak Strong
Autoionization of water is the reaction between two water molecules producing a ________ ion and a _________ ion Hydronium hydroxide (H2O--> H+ + OH-)
Strong acid An acid that is assumed to ionize completely in aqeous soltuion
Monoprotic acid An acid that possesses only one ionizable acidic hydrogen atom. ie. HCl, HBr, etc.
Strong base An ionic substance that (accordimg to arrhenius definition) disociates completely in water to release hydroxide ions
Weak acid Only partially disociates. Carboxylic acids are weak.
Weak base Has a weak attraction for protons
Metal oxides react with water to produce _________ solutions Basic
Non metal oxides react with water to produce ________ solutions Acidic
Lewis acid An electron pair acceptor
Lewis base An electron pair donor
Titrant The solution in a buret during titration
Buffer A mixture of a conjugate acid base pair that maintains a nearly constant pH even when a strong acid or base is added
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