Applied Marine Biology Flashcards

Hayley Harrison
Flashcards by Hayley Harrison, updated more than 1 year ago
31
0
0

Description

Applied Marine Biology, University of Portsmouth, 2015-2016

Resource summary

Question Answer
Marine Fouling -an unwanted growth of organisms on a surface -cost of $1 billion due to drag friction
Fouling Succession -primary (molecular fouling): seconds to hours -secondary (microfouling): hours to days -tertiary (macrofouling): up to 1 year
Anti-fouling Coatings -leaching (biocides) -non-leaching (release)
Non-coating -water treatment -surface treatment cleaning
Invasive Species -seaweed uses: food staple, food gum, maerl, cosmetics, medicine -changes to industry: increased mechanization, inclusion of fast-growing species/varieties
Cultivation Methods -regeneration and self-seeding -fragmentation and fertile adults -requires knowledge of the species
Mariculture -improving sea conditions -improving plant material -creates artificial environments -depends on algae
Cultivation of Laminaria -natural life-history and forced cultivation -spore seeding: zoospore seeding, gametophyte seeding, out-growing -Gracilaria: bottom stacking, rope farming, pond farming, tank production
Laminaria Life Cycle 3da57b85-3f15-458f-bc4a-f154e25061ba.png (image/png)
Cultivation Contamination -prevention: pre-treatment, site cleaning, filtration, maintenance, conditions controlled -control methods: replacement, grazers, chemicals, removal, drying
Fishery Patterns -stocks: basic management unit (varied in response) -depensation: loss of reproductive capacity with decreasing stock size
Stock Monitoring -stock monitoring: natural and artificial markers, phenotypic characteristics,. genetic data 16366d48-0dc9-4b47-b3d4-23f347fbb186.jpg (image/jpg)
Fishery Stock Variation 2c62814e-f2fa-43f1-b4e4-a09872ad124e.jpg (image/jpg)
Stock Recruitment R= (a x s) / L + (b x s) b66257a0-132c-49d5-a5d5-cde1776497dc.jpg (image/jpg)
Fish Stock Growth -estimating expected yield: surplus production, yield per recruit -trophic models: account for biological interactions, models based on energy flow, implications of change in one component
Estimating Fishing Mortality 4a29ae1e-af23-4c61-aef3-059bf991db01.jpg (image/jpg)
Fishing and Climate -under intensive exploitation, populations undergo critical changes: mature early, smaller adult, short life-span, shift in maturation reaction -in heavily exploited populations: more adults killed by humans than natural causes
Large Scale Climate Variation -Large scale variation: El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) 994849f1-497f-42d5-9fe0-2500bb69dba9.jpg (image/jpg)
Environmental Change On Target Species 533fc8a1-054e-403f-8cad-47c78e19c0d2.jpg (image/jpg)
Stable Isotopes 6f98ac14-5b63-4b2c-bf32-d7819d3f3c62.jpg (image/jpg)
Marine Biological Invasions -induction vectors: aquaculture, ballast water, fouling, artificial canals, aquariums -natural dispersal pathways: leading-edge dispersal corridors, long-distance dispersal -artificial pathways: mass dispersal, cultivation
Biological Invasion Sequence -transport -colonization -dispersal -impacts
Introduced Species b13cb553-c4bd-422a-b8df-6c91ba5312ed.jpg (image/jpg)
Deepwater Fishes, Carbon and Ecosystem Services -mesopelagic food web is very efficient so it prevents long term storage of carbon (can be overwhelmed or bypassed) -difficult to assess the abundance of mesopelagic fish -1,000,000-2,500,000 tonnes of C stored per year
Carbon Storage 4f099b7c-0d75-495a-86ba-853da7e311bf.jpg (image/jpg)
Marine Wood Borers -significance of biodegraders: biodeterioration, biotech potential, ecosystem services -As a food source: non-ingesters, microorganism users, particulate feeders, independent digesters, kleptoenzymes
Lignocellulose, hemicellulose and lignin -lignocellulose: long chain polymer -hemicellulose: branching polymers -lignin: hydrophobic 47e4ec47-a414-47b5-b650-1c12f5db1218.jpg (image/jpg)
Particulate Feeders -the gland of deshayes: mass of brown tissue lining the brachial vein that fixes inorganic nitrogen -nitrogen conservation: grooming, species excretion
Aquaculture -use of ~300 species -no species is ideal and must be manipulated (direct or genetic)
Induced Triploidy in Aqauculture -change in chromosome number (2n to 3n) to give infertile males -pressure shock, heat shock -problems: competition, escape, sexually maturing males
Show full summary Hide full summary

Suggestions

Final week
Luke Hansford
Discuss the environmental impacts of aquaculture
Hayley Harrison
Applied Marine Biology Quiz
Hayley Harrison
DE100 Investigating Psychology - Research Report Writing
Anneliese Shaw
Impacts of Fishing on Target Populations - Life History Characteristics Altered
Madison Burt
Continental Shelf/Deep Ocean Floor
Jasmine Allen
DE100 Investigating Psychology, Chapter 2, Week 7
Anneliese Shaw
Week 1 - Investigating Psychology
Anneliese Shaw
Marine Biology: Bird Flashcards
Madison Hooks
Week 2 - Investigating Psychology
Anneliese Shaw
Taxonomy Roscoff shore
Salvatore Giordano