main controversies around researching intelligence and their interpretationsYerke's - bias culture/classprejudices - less advantaged groupseven robust standardisation doesn't fully eliminate biasAssumes genetics is involved - heritabilitydescirbe Robert Yerke's study, and main controversies - pp 51 - 55'army mental tests' - first pen and paper test. spring 1917, army selectionWAIS tests today use similar principles as David Weschler worked with Yerke's2 versions:Alpha - basic reading ability - english speaking literate recruits8 subtests - similar to todays IQ tests 20 - 40 q's each, in ascending orderrecruits graded A - E1.7mill tested by 1918by war end - convince population intelligence can be measured, and useful oral directions arithmatic practical judgement - (multi choice: cats are useful because: select one of 4 options) synonym-antonym - are words similar or opposite disarranged sentences - can words be arranged to make sense number series completion analogies information - multi choice general knowledge See table 2.1 pg 53 for examples.Beta - pictures and numbers - illiterate7 subtests - patterns from cardboard pieces, compairng strings of #, id missing item in pics. mazes cube analysis - how many cubes x-0 series - complete series digit symbol - fill in using key number checking - comparison picture completion - id missing feature geometric construction - copy pattern with pieces of card See table 2.2 pg 54 for examples.believed both tests look at same thing: eg number series (alpha) = z-0 series (beta)believed culture and education did not affect performancebelieved extremely efficient (mass testing) - time limit, took marked beginning of mass testing.believed educatability evident in first yr of school1926, USA's Scholastic Aptitude Test - collage entrythis led to 11+Shortcomings of Yerke's Study: pp58-60he believed can generalise results to general pop.2 broad conclusions found; avg intelligence lower than Terman's test norms predict, instead equvlnt - 13 yr old performance reveals clear class/culture heirachy., As Galton also said. - reinforcing political bias believed intell. inate - not changeablepopular with Eugencis movement - believed inate differences in groups and promoted selective reproduction.confirmatory bias: allowed convictions and political precudice to interpret dataActual Results Revealed: Quantity of Education - affects performance - learned knowledge/skills assessed NOT g poverty related disease - affects performance - environmen, deprivation, poverty, poor health influence performance + learned knowledge/skills assessed NOT g among immigrants - longer in USA = better performance, needed familiarity with language and american culture. So significant cultural/class biasdangers of cultural and class bias in testing pp60prejudiceEugenics movement disadvantage poor and immigrants as well as illiterates (even beta's needed to understand instructions, use a pen) bias toward American cultureYerkes = scientific credibility to the anti-immigrant rhetoric. 'scientific rasicm' - caused limitiations of immigrants from 'less intelligent' groups.This alerts us today to: pp61-63 potential of bias influencing interpretations scientific racism still about today - far-right movements propoganda - still see differences as innate, not as education, experience or opertunities. Now known that there is no innate difference betwn racial/ethnic groups, but instead due to environmental factors.~Today robust standardisation test, through test norms - test given to 000's, in different groups, to get norms for each specific group.describe heritability meaning pp65-6differences in genes (genetic code) = differences in g ie: downs syndromeheritability = how much do genes affect g compared to environment - estimates about heritability of intelligence Doesn't tell how much genes or environment affect an individual - as a complex interaction btwn genes/environment, both important, so only generally to population Tell us nothing about the origin of differences btwn groups. as environmental fctrs more likely originates from animal breeding programs, heritable traits maximised through breeding, using tests controlling genes and environmentMaybe human genome will find DNA string that shows genetic intelligence, but as yet still missingTypes of studies to find heritability estimate (differences in variability in g acconts for gene variability) pp 67-70 Twins - is similarity in g greater in identical twins than fraternal? suggests genetic component. adopted children - genes with birth/environment with adopted parents - compare with child and birth parent - relative importance of genes and environment on g. similar g = genetic, different g = environmental is more influential twins seperated at birth - combines both studies, are identical twins apart as similar to those reared together? if they are genes more influential than environment results idea that genes do, in part, account for differences in g.advantages/disadvantages of methods used to study heritability of intelligence. pp 70-Advantages: Straight forward clear logic Disadvantages: tests as animal breeding not ethical for humans (psych well-being, health, dignity, values are violated) - relies on natural instanses underestimate environmental role/exagerate genetic role assumes twins share equal environmental factors, ie same opportunities, challenges, treated the same (equal environment assumption) only applies to identicals as they look the same, treated the same., so also environmental factors count in g. Seperated twins is the same - only really applies to identical twins. Also sometimes had shared environment before seperation. some seperated twins stay within extended family, so still share some environmental factors only looks at limited range of env. factors these limitations inflate the heritability of g.research needs to look more at the interactions between env. and genes, and less on 'estimates of heritability' as this is too complex and each work together, difficult to unravel. but as yet not possible as we don't have a means of studying where characteristics originate.Byford, J., McAvoy, J. and Banyard, P. (2014) Investigating Intelligence, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
Criticism of IQ tests - ~Ways attempted to solve them.Psychologists need to consider cultural and socio- economic group differences when analyzing test results. And compare results with that groups test norms.Sarah Mackenzie Ross - constructed by 'white middle class researchers from a western background' Are they fair to other cultures/backgrounds speed of processing timed tests - speed not believed good in all cultures Understanding english - if don't understand the explanaition of the test, this needs to be taken into account Ken Richardson Psychs believe their view of intelligence is the right one needs to be a more inclusive means of testing. a new way of thinking. Almuth RuthTests need to be standardized for each different culture or group, so fair test norms can be establishedHow can an IQ test be changed to make it useful for other cultures?Suzanne So - China Translate tests Change items - verbal, what is easy for us may not be for others IQ, remove localised items to those more appropriate relevancy of pictures, so different ones used develop culture free tests- Raven's Progressive Matriz's (RPM) Ken Richardson - Flynn EffectAre RPM tests culture free? he's not so sure. (reading direction)Flynn effect - steady increase in IQ scores within a community, due to better environment/socio-economic status - class affects performance on IQ testsThey acquire tools that better prepare for testWhy are IQ tests no longer used in parts of UK?Maura Kearney - glasgow not testing young, workin class pop, different ethnic/cultural background Tests not standardised for all the different groups, so not relevant didn't support psych's in establishing learning barriers Socio-economic bias. disadvantages non-middle class In-text citation: Limitations of intelligence testing (The Open University, 2014)Reference list: The Open University (2014) ‘Limitations of intelligence testing’ [Video], DE100 Investigating psychology 1. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=842332§ion=2URL (Accessed date).
Robert Plomintests Educational Achievement - reading, maths ability, NOT intelligence testsIntelligence - 'red rag to a bull' gets peoples backs up, don't hear message.What is, or isn't the meaning of heritabilitygenetic influence on individual differences.It is NOT about an individuals intelligenceSteve Jones 'recent heritability research is based on solid scientific groundss'n-text citation: Inside Science (The Open University, 2014)Reference list: The Open University (2014) ‘Inside Science’ [Audio],DE100 Investigating psychology 1. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=842332§ion=3.1URL (Accessed date).
consider culture bias inherent in IQ testing.ellis Island - Leila Senderlandabstract - better guage of intelligencethe way immigrants respond differently to abstract questions than expected in the west.information tests - need some kind of educationWhat does Robert Sternberg mean when he says IQ is a relevent as length of 3rd toe? What arguments do he and paul Kline offer? what does it tell us generally?Is intelligence fixed or can it be improved?Paul Kline - fixedRobert Sternberg - research sought to raise IQDoes the speed a baby gets bored = ability to solve problems later?Nicholas Mackintosh - intelligence measured in babiesIn-text citation: Measuring the mind: IQ – the numbers game (The Open University, 2014)Reference list: The Open University (2014) ‘Measuring the mind: IQ – the numbers game’ [Audio], DE100 Investigating psychology 1. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=842332§ion=7URL (Accessed date).