Structure of the Heart

Bee Brittain
Flashcards by Bee Brittain, updated more than 1 year ago
Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain almost 5 years ago
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AS - Level Biology (7 - Mass Transport) Flashcards on Structure of the Heart, created by Bee Brittain on 04/19/2016.

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Question Answer
Blood in the ventricles Pumps blood away from the heart and into the arteries which lead to the rest of the body
Ventricle Features - Thicker muscular wall - has to contract strongly
Right Ventricle Only has to pump blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and therefore has a thinner muscular wall than the left ventricle
Left Ventricle Has to pump blood through the aorta and to the rest of the body so therefore has a thicker muscular wall than the right ventricle
Blood through the atria The atria receive blood from the veins and pump it into the ventricles
Atria Features - Elastic to stretch as it collects blood - Thin walled
The human heart is described as a double pump system as there are two pumps, side by side.
The pump on the right deals with what type of blood? deoxygenated blood from the body
The pump on the left deals with what type of blood? oxygenated blood from the lungs
Blood supply to the heart The heart is supplied with blood through the CORONARY ARTRIES. Blockage of these arteries (e.g through a blood clot) leads to myocardial infarction
Valves between the atria and ventricles These are called atrioventricular valves or 'AV valves'. The left AV valve is called the bicuspid valve, and the right AV valve is called the tricuspid valve. These valves prevent back flow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract
Vessels connecting the heart to the lungs Pulmonary vessels
Aorta Connected to the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body apart from the lungs.
Vena Cava Connected to the right atrium and brings deoxygenated blood back from the tissues of the body (except the lungs)
Pulmonary Vein Connected to the left atrium and brings oxygenated blood back from the lungs. This is strange as normally veins carry deoxygenated blood!
Pulmonary Artery Connected to the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where its O2 is replenished and its CO2 is removed. This is unusual as normally arteries carry oxygenated blood.
Risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (3 factors) - Smoking - High salt intake - Blood Cholesterol
Blood Cholesterol - HDL's HDL's (high density lipoproteins) remove cholesterol from the tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion. They help protect arteries against heart disease.
Blood Cholesterol - LDL's LDL's (low density lipoproteins) transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues, including the artery walls, depositing it behind the endothelium layer. This can lead to the development of atheroma, which may lead to heart disease.
Smoking Carbon monoxide binds readily but irreversibly with haemoglobin. This means no oxygen gets to tissues so the heart has to work harder, meaning blood pressure is raised and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke it increased.
High blood pressure Genes can cause high blood pressure. As there is already a higher blood pressure in the arteries, the heart must work harder to pump blood into them. This means there is a higher risk of developing and bursting an aneurysm causing a haemorrhage. Walls of the arteries thicken = restricted blood flow.
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