C1

mikerobinson200
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mikerobinson200
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C1

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C1 THE EARLY ATMOSPHERE Formed by gasses from volcanoes. Large amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapour, hardly any oxygen, small amounts of other gasses.
C1 A CHANGING ATMOSPHERE Fossil fuels increase CO2, farming increases CH4 and O2, deforestation decreases O2 and increases CO2, volcanoes increase CO2 and SO2.
C1 ROCKS AND THEIR FORMATION Igneous rocks: From magma or lava, made from inter locking crystals, the slower it cooled, the bigger the crystals (basalt-small,granite-big) Sedimentary rocks:Compacted sediment, erode easily, made from founded grains, contain fossils (chalk, limestone) Metamorphic rocks: Sedimentary under lots of heat and pressure, form crystals (Marble-from chalk or limestone)
C1 LIMESTONE AND ITS USES Using limestone:Buildings, roads, railways, glass, concrete, cement. Quarrying-Good: Important material, creates jobs, helps UK and local economy. Quarrying-Bad: Dust, noise, destruction, wildlife, scenery, traffic, pollution)
C1 FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Molecule: Two or more, one type of atom Compound: Two or more, different atoms Mixture: Not chemically joined
C1 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Thermal decomposition: Metal carbonates decompose when heated, oxide and carbon dioxide formed Precipitation reactions: Two soluble substances form one insoluble substance (precipitate)
C1 REACTIONS OF CALCIUM COMPOUNDS Limewater: calcium hydroxide dissolved in water, test for CO2 (if present goes cloudy) Using calcium carbonate: neutralisation of acidic compounds (eg. used by farmers on soil)
C1 INDIGESTION Hydrocloric acid: made by stomach, kills bacteria, helps digestion with use of enzymes-only work in acidic conditions, too much = indigestion Acid+base--->salt+water
C1 NEUTRALISATION Neutralisation: Can be done with metal oxides, hydroxides and carbonates acid+metal oxide--->salt+H2O acid+metal hydroxide--->salt+H2O acid+metal carbonate --->salt+H2O+CO2
C1 IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE Electrolysis: decomposition of a compound with a dc current Hydrocloric acid-->chlorine+H2O Chlorine: obtained from sea water through electrolysis Uses: Bleach, PVC (plastic) Dangers: toxic gas, kills microorganisms, can harm or kill
C1 ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER 2H2O--->2H2+O2 Hydrogen test: lit splint, will pop Oxygen test: glowing splint, will relight Chlorine: Damp blue litmus paper, red then will bleach white.
C1 ORES Extracting metals: most found as compounds (if unreactive, found as pure metal)
C1 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION Oxidation: Gaining oxygen Reduction: loss of oxygen Higher in reactivity series, corrode faster.
C1 RECYCLING MATERIALS Materials will last longer, less mines,less pollution (less energy to recycle than to extract), less land for landfill Gold: jewellery, small electrical devices Copper: wireing, water pipes Steel: Bridges, cars, buildings Aluminium:planes, cars
C1 ALLOYS Alloy: mixture of metals (eg. steel) Gold: Too soft, alloys used Shape memory alloys: Nitinol goes to original shape when heated
C1 CRUDE OIL Hydrocarbons: Hydrogen and carbon only Crude oil: contains a mixture of hydrocarbons, not very useful as crude oil
C1 CRUDE OIL FRACTIONS Gasses:heating and cooking Kerosene: fuel for aircraft Fuel oil: Large ships and power stations Bitumen: roads and roofs Gas (compared to bitumen): low boiling point, easy to set alight, low viscosity (runny)
C1 COMBUSTION Burning hydrocarbons with oxygen: CO2 and H2O produced
C1 ACID RAIN Sulfur dioxide: Most hydocarbon fuels contain impurities such as sufur, when the hydrocarbon is burnt, sulfur dioxide is formed
C1 CLIMATE CHANGE Reducing CO2: Seeding oceans with iron compounds, encorages microscopic plants capturing CO2 and converting it back into hydrocarbons
C1 BIOFUELS Biofuel: Fuel made from plants (eg. wood or ethanol from sugar cane or sugar beet) Advantages: Renewable, less pollution (however fossil fuels are used for transport and conversion into ethanol) Disadvantages: Uses up land-leads to higher food prices
C1 CHOOSING FUELS Good fuel: burn easily, not produce ash or smoke, release lots of energy, easy to store and transport
C1 ALKANES AND ALKENES Alkenes: unsaturated, have a carbon-carbon double bond Unsaturated: Has a double bond Bromine test: To find out if a liquid contains double bonds, Bromine dissolved in water is orange but becomes colourless when mixed with unsaturated molecules.
C1 CRACKING Breaking down long chains into short chains and alkenes. Cracking is necessary because there is a lager demand than supply for short chain molecules but vice verca for long chain.
C1 CRACKING PARAFFIN
C1 POLYMERISATION Ethene can be polymerised to form poly(ethene) (polymer) Small alkene molecules: Monomers
C1 PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Biodegradability: Polymers don't rot - useful because will last a long time. Disposing of polymers - good: Recycling - can melt to make new products, biodegradable poymers - in development, will rot away Disposing of polymers - bad: Landfill - running out of landfill sites, burning - release toxic gases
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