Vietnam + USA

hanifa.hussain
Flashcards by hanifa.hussain, updated more than 1 year ago
hanifa.hussain
Created by hanifa.hussain almost 5 years ago
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revision flash cards for HIS2Q - vietnam and USA

Resource summary

Question Answer
5 reasons WHY Nixon ended the war? 1) unwinnable war 2) cold war had changed 3) American anti-war movement 4) Win votes 5) Congressional opposition to continue the war - repealed the gulf of tonkin resolution
HOW Nixon ended the war? 3 ways 1) Kissinger's diplomacy 2) Enticed USSR and China to put pressure on Hanoi 3) Military pressure - bombed North Vietnam and trail in Cambodia and Laos - mad bomber theory
Why did peace take so long? Washington and Hanoi unwilling to make concessions - both sought 'peace with honour'
What did Nixon promise when campaigning for the presidency? His position and statements on Vietnam were ambiguous. He promised 'we will end the war and win the peace' and 'the war must be ended..honourable' He refused to explain HOW he would end the war in case an explanation would interfere with Johnson's efforts to achieve a settlement or would weaken his own bargaining position if he became president.
What was the policy of Vietnamisation? 3 points The term used by Nixon to describe the US policy towards South Vietnam: 1) enable South Vietnam to take a greater responsibility for the war 2) For America to start a planned withdrawal 3) while simultaneously supporting the government in Saigon in its fight against the NLF
How many troops were were announced to be withdrawn in June 1969? 25,000
How many troops were left in South Vietnam? 515,000
How many soldiers were announced to be withdrawn in December 1969? A further 60,000 men were to leave South Vietnam
What was the Madman Theory? During the Paris peace talks it was an attempt to convince the government in Hanoi that Nixon so hated Communism and was so taken in by the Domino Theory, that he was planning to use nuclear weapons against North Vietnam if the war continued.
What was the Phoenix Programme? Attempt by US sympathisers to infiltrate villages thought to be sympathetic to the NLC, find out who the local NLF leaders were and kill them
How many members of the NLF were killed as a result of the Phonenix Programme? Nearly 41,000
Why was the Phoenix Programme a failure? The NLF quickly replaced their losses and the impact of Phoenix was only short term and had no lasting impact on the ability of the NLF to fight its war. As a result of this, Nixon knew that he needed to order, as commander in chief, a new way of fighting the vietnam war.
What was the military viewpoint on Vietnamisation? (1) All US senior commanders near enough agreed that the South Vietnamese Army would be incapable of defending South Vietnam against a combined NLF/VietCong attack.
What was the military viewpoint on Vietnamisation? (2) They believed that the end result would be an expansion of Communism in Southeast Asia, exactly would the US had all along fought against since the mid-50s
What was the Political Viewpoint on Vietnamisation? 1) Vietnamisation was very understandable 2) War was becoming increasingly unpopular in America and Nixon's standing would be elevated if he was the president who pulled them out of the war. 3) Nixon felt that it would leave the SVA with more than sufficient support for its survival
By 1971 what percentage of US combat troops had left S Vietnam? 66%
What was the reduction of advisers by 1971? 22%
What was the main priority for the Americans in1972? To provide the South Vietnamese military enough modern equipment to fight the North Vietnamese.
How many pieces of military hardware had landed in S Vietnam by Dec 1972? 105,000 pieces
What are some weapons the SVA received by 1971? New M48 tanks, 175mm self propelled artillery guns and anti-tanks weapons.
What weapons did the SV Air Force received by 1971? Aeroplanes for 5 squadrons of F5 fighter jets, 3 squadrons of A37 fighter bombers and 2 squadrons of CH-47 heavy transport planes
What marked the end of Vietnamisation? The ceasefire between North and South Vietnam on January 23rd 1973 marked the end of Vietnamisation.
What did the ceasefire signify? That all US military forces of whatever description had to leave South Vietnam and that America had to stop giving military aid to the South. In return, the North would uphold the ceasefire, return US POW's and end its infiltration into the South
What happened on March 29th 1973? The US military headquarters in South Vietnam was shut down.
What is Realpolitik? A realistic, rather than moralistic or legalistic approach to foreign policy; a belief that foreign policy should be dictated by the national interest
Who is Henry Kissinger? National Security Advisor for Nixon He was a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, Kissinger arrived in America as a teen. Became a Harvard professor, specialising in International Relations
What was Normalisation of diplomatic relations? When the USA disliked another state, particularly a Communist one, it refused to give it diplomatic recognition. It was not until the late 1970s that the USA established diplomatic relations (that is, normalised relations) with China. Once diplomatic relations were established, ambassadors were exchanged.
What was the Madman Theory? Nixon wanted Hanoi to think he was capable of anything, in order to frighten them into making peace.
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