CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

Olivia Andrews
Mind Map by , created almost 4 years ago

A detailed mind map outlining key components of the Cuban Missile Crisis

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Olivia Andrews
Created by Olivia Andrews almost 4 years ago
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CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
1 LEADERS
1.1 Nikita Khrushchev- Leader of the Soviet Union
1.2 John F Kennedy- President of United States
1.3 Castro Fidel- Prime Minister of Cuban Republic
2 IDEOLOGIES
2.1 Capitalism vs. Communism
2.2 Democracy vs. Totalitarianism
3 KHRUSCHEVS REASONS FOR PLACING MISSILES IN CUBA
3.1 Subsequent to the Bay of Pigs invasion Khrushchev threatened Kennedy stating his determination to make a treaty with East Germany that would end the West’s rights to access West Berlin
3.2 Khrushchev wanted to strengthen his political position in the USSR
3.3 Khrushchev placed missiles to help defend Cuba from America. Cuba was a communist country and America feared the growth of communism
3.4 America had already placed Missiles in Turkey. By placing missiles in Cuba, they were now evenly matched
3.5 For reassurance that the USSR would be protected from any military invasion
4 PREPARATION FOR NUCLEAR WAR
4.1 Upon hearing the news of the missiles stationed in Cuba, Kennedy called upon EXCOMM to work on possible solutions to the crisis.
4.2 EXCOMM was in favour of a surgical air strike. However this would not guarantee to destroy all of the missiles. The Soviets could retaliate and possibly kill millions
4.3 An invasion was also another popular option. It would definitely remove the missiles. Yet Kennedy still feared retaliation from the Soviets and wanted a peaceful solution
4.4 United Nations Role: Kennedy informed the United Nations partially on the situation before addressing the public. The U.S.A showed evidence of missiles in Cuba; however the Soviet ambassador rejects the claims that they placed the missiles in Cuba.
4.4.1 The United States moved to DefCon2 , prepared for a full-out war.
4.5 It was decided that blockading Cuba would be a temporary solution to the crisis. The United States could stop further supplies upon entering Cuba and surveillance any military build-up
4.6 The Public were taught Military tactics to prepare for possibility of nuclear war
4.7 U2 plane was shot down over Cuba. These added to the growing tensions between the nations.
5 MOVEMENTS
5.1 Prior to Fidel Castro, Cuba was ruled by tyrannical leader Fulgenico Batista. The Cuban public had a strong hatred towards his cruel and corrupt ideology, yet the U.S.A continued to support him since he was an anti-communist.
5.2 From 1956, Fidel Castro led a campaign of guerrilla warfare to overthrow the tyrannical leader. This was known as Castro’s 26th Movement. Castro assumes power in 1959.
5.3 Upon his ascend to power, Castro took over many of the United States owned businesses and developed strong links with the USSR
5.4 On April 17th, the Bay of Pigs invasions (initiated by Eisenhower administration) took place. The United States trained 1500 anti-Castro exiles. The rebels landed upon the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in aim to destroy Castro’s government. However the Kennedy administration withdrawal of military support doomed the Cuban exiles. After a few days the rebel force was defeated. This helped strengthen Castro’s authority and began the tense relations between The United States and Cuba
6 CONSEQUENCES
6.1 Test Ban Treaty was signed on August 5th 1963 in Moscow by The USSR and the United States. They agreed to stop the testing of nuclear weapons everywhere.
6.2 On June 20th 1964 the USA and the USSR decided to set up a direct phone line between Moscow and Washington DC to prevent such miscommunications occurring again.
6.3 The Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty was signed in 1968 promising that no nation will supply nuclear technology to other countries
6.4 On April 24th 1963, the last of the nuclear Jupiter missiles were removed from Turkey
6.5 The 1,113 prisoners held prisoner during the Bay of Pigs invasion were exchanged by Fidel Castro for $60 million dollars in food, medicines and other necessities.
6.6 Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States grew closer
6.7 Relations between the Soviet Union and China grew further apart. Due to the results of the Cuban Missile Crisis, China claimed to be the true leader of the Communist movement
6.8 Relations between Cuba and Soviet Union were tremulous after Khrushchev removed the missiles. Fidel Castro accused the Russians of conceding to the Americans and abandoning the Cuban Revolution
6.9 Allies of America were angered as President Kennedy EXCOM administration concealed vital negations that could have led to an atomic war.
6.10 In 1964 Leonid Brezhnev and Aleksei Kosygin forced Khrushchev to withdraw from power.
6.11 Kennedy was seen as a fearless, powerful leader and therefore continued to govern The United States until his liquidation in 1963
6.12 Although not proven true, it is a popular theory that Kennedy’s assassination was a due to his participation in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
7 13 DAYS OF TENSION
7.1 October 14th 1962: The United States U2 reconnaissance aircraft flies over Western Cuba show photographical evidence of several nuclear missile bases as well as Soviet IL-28 bombs and medium to intermediate range ballistic missile nuclear missiles (MRBM and IRBM)a
7.2 October 15th 1962: The National Photographic Interpretation centres analysis of the photos confirms existence of nuclear missiles. Photos are processed and sent to President John F. Kennedy
7.3 October 16th 1962: Kennedy is informed of the construction of the Soviet Missiles and convenes the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM) to begin discussing solutions to the crisis. Most members favoured a retaliation military strike against the sites. However Kennedy opposed. After much calibration, Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to prevent any further supplies from entering Cuba.
7.4 October 18th 1962: Kennedy meets with Gromyko, the Soviet Foreign Minister. Kennedy addresses the issue of Cuba but does not reveal their knowledge of the bombs. Gromyko denies knowledge of the bombs.
7.5 October 22nd 1962: Kennedy makes a television address informing the public of the knowledge of Soviet Missiles in Cuba. Kennedy announces their plan to blockade Cuba of further supplies. Kennedy states that they will not end the quarantine until the Soviet Union removes the missiles.
7.6 October 23rd: The OAS supports Kennedy’s military plan to blockade Cuba. The first ships move into the blockade line of Cuba
7.7 October 24th 1962: Soviet ships reach the quarantine line. U.S vessels almost come close to firing at Soviet vessels, but turned away. This would of possibly lead to a retaliation fire by the Soviet Union nuclear missiles.
7.8 October 25th 1962: The United Nations hold an emergency council meeting. Americian politician and diplomat Adlai Stevenson’s confronts the Soviet Ambassador Valerian Zorin about the knowledge of Nuclear Missiles in Cuba. The Soviet ambassador rejected the American accusation that the Soviets placed the missiles in Cuba.
7.9 October 26th 1962: Premier Khrushchev send a private letter to John F Kennedy that states he will remove the missiles from Cuba if America pledges never to invade Cuba. He later also states that he will only remove missiles if America removes their Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Meanwhile Castro presses Khrushchev to launch a nuclear missile if America decides to attack Cuba.
7.10 October 27th 1962: A Unite States aircraft is shot down over Cuba. The Soviets demand that the U.S make a public statement declaring that they will not invade Cuba and remove Jupiter missiles from Turkey.
7.11 October28th 1962: Khrushchev announces that he will remove nuclear missiles from Cuba. America secretly removes Jupiter missiles from Turkey. The 13 days of tension is over.