Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Neurobiology & Communication

Lewis Atha
Flashcards by Lewis Atha, updated more than 1 year ago


Flashcards on Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Neurobiology & Communication, created by Lewis Atha on 04/28/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Type of neuron which connects other neurons Inter-neuron
Type of neuron which connects a Sensory neuron
Type of neuron that connects to an effector (ie skeletal muscle or gland) Motor Neuron
Name 3 roles of Glial cells - Remove debris via phagocytosis - Physically support neuron and produce myelin sheath - maintain homeostatic environment around neurons
Direction of travel of impulse in neuron From dendrite through cell body to terminal of axon
Affect of incomplete myelination in early years responses to stimuli are not as rapid or co-ordinated
Type of neural pathway from senses to CNS Converging
Type of pathway from CNS to effectors diverging
Type of pathway which allows impulse to be recycled Reverberating
Function of myelin sheath insulate the axon, increasing the speed of impulse conduction from node to node
The nervous system can be split into what two sub-systems Central Nervous System (Brain & Spinal Cord) Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral Nervous System contains which 2 sub-systems? Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System
What is function of autonomic nervous system Regulate heart rate, rate of breathing, rate of intestinal secretions, peristalsis in gut
What is function of somatic nervous system control voluntary movement of skeletal muscles, and some reflex actions
which term describes the relationship between the 2 pathways of the autonomic nervous system antagonistic
Which part of the brain controls the autonomic system? Medulla
Which part of the brain controls balance, posture and movement Cerebellum
Which part of the brain is the centre for conscious thought, recall of memories and alteration of behaviour due to experince Cerebral Cortex
What is the role of the corpus callosum to transfer information from one hemisphere of the cerebrum to the other
Name 3 areas of localized brain functions in the cerebral cortex Any from -motor areas -sensory areas association areas concerning language, personality, imagination and intelligence
Which system process information for memories and influences emotional and motivational states Limbic system
What is increased and decreased by the para-sympathetic pathway? Increased: Peristalsis & Intestinal Secretions Decreased: Heart Rate and Breathing
What is increased and decreased by the Sympathetic pathway? Increased: Heart Rate & Breathing Decreased: Peristalsis & Intestinal Secretions
Segregation of objects Figure and ground
Perception of distance Binocular disparity
recognition of objects by SHAPE rather than detail
3 factors of perpetual set which influence way in which stimuli is percieved - past experience - context -expectation
say 4 things about memory span - It is the capacity of short term memory - can hold approx 7 items of information - for approx 30s - before information is displaced by new information - rehearsal can extend memory span - chunking information can increase amount of info held
stages of making a memory - information is encoded and passes through sensory memory - selected information enters STM - info can be transferred to LTM or discarded
what is the term called for access information stored in the long term memory retrieval
what is working memory an extension of STM for performing cognitive tasks
Name 3 methods for transfer information from STM to LTM - Elaboration of meaning - Rehearsal - Organisation
Describe rehearsal repeating information over and over to memorize it (shallow encoding)
organisation grouping information with related information
elaboration addition of extra information so that new information is linked with existing information
Where is spatial memory found limbic system
Which 2 types of memory are found in the cerebral cortex Episodic and Semantic
What type of memories are linked to the motor cortex? Procedural memories (ie how to do things)
Emotional memories link which 2 systems Cerebral cortex and limbic
describe how an impulse is transferred from one neuron to the next - when impulse reaches axon terminal it stimulates vesicles containing a neurotransmitter to fuse with the cell membrane - the NT diffuses across the synaptic cleft & binds with receptors on post-synaptic neuron's dendrites -when sufficient receptors are stimulated, a threshold is reached triggering an impulse
explain filtering out of weak stimuli For an impulse to be triggered in post-synaptic neuron, a sufficient number of receptors must be stimulated. When this threshold isn't reached no impulse is triggered and the weak stimuli is filtered out
Explain summation in converging pathways, 2 or more neurons are releasing a neurotransmitter to one post-synaptic neuron. Therefore it is more likely that a sufficient number of receptors will be stimulated (threshold reached) triggering impulse
What is plasticity of response The brains ability to develop new neural pathways
What 3 things can cause plasticity of repsonse - new pathways forming after brain damage/injury - the learning of new skills - development in early years
descibe what is meant by minor plasticity the suppression of reflex actions (not blinking) or the response to stimuli (ignoring distractions)
what neurotransmitter is involved in the reward pathway dopamine
what neurotransmitter is involved in the para-sympathetic pathway Acetylcholine
what neurotransmitter is involved in the Sympathetic pathway Noradrenaline
what neurotransmitter is involved in the reduction of pain intensity Endorphins
Explain the affect of antagonist drugs (2marks) (1) bind to neurotransmitter receptors blocking neurotransmitter (1) over time this results in an increase in receptor sensitivity and/or number of receptors to compensate
Explain the affect of agonist drugs (2marks) (1) mimic neurotransmitters and bind to neurotransmitter receptors (1) over time this overstimulation results in desensitisation meaning a decrease in receptor sensitivity and/or number of receptors to compensate
Name 4 affects of recreational drugs on neural pathways - stimulate the release of neurotransmitters imitate action of neurotransmitters -block the binding of neurotransmitters to receptors -inhibit reabsorption or enzyme degradation of neurotransmitters
What is important for future stable relationships in the early years of life? Secure infant attachment
Human behaviour may be learned by observation and imitation
Reinforcement is reward of actions leading to likelihood of being repeated
Shaping is is reward of behaviour that approximates a desired behaviour
What is term for same response to different but similar stimuli generalisation
explain the term social facilitation improvement of performance due to competition or by being watched by others
Explain extinction when behaviour patterns are not rewarded they are likely to disappear
explain the term de-individuation - loss of personal identity with a group - leading to diminished restraints on behaviour
what is term for being able to distinguish between different but related stimuli so that different responses can be made discrimination
What term describes a changing of beliefs as a result of persuasion internalisation
what term describes the changing of beliefs to be more like an admired, influencing person identification
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