B2 -Keeping Healthy

Alice Hathaway
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GCSE Biology Flashcards on B2 -Keeping Healthy, created by Alice Hathaway on 04/30/2016.

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Alice Hathaway
Created by Alice Hathaway over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
What are symptoms? The effects an infection has on a body, such as a rash or high temperature
What can cause symptoms? Cell damage Producing toxins e.g. proteins produced that damage material holding together cells; or toxins that poison cells
How can bacteria reproduce? Asexually in warm, moist conditions filled with nutrients
Why does bacteria reproduce so quickly inside the body? The perfect conditions for reproduction are found in many places in the body, such as intestines so a few bacteria can quickly become a colony
How to viruses reproduce and why can they do this easily inside the body? They take host of other cells. They can easily reproduce inside the body as there are a lot of the right kinds of cells for them to use.
What is the role of the immune system? Deal with and fight infectious microorganisms that enter the body
What cells are used in an immune response? White blood cells
What is the first stage of an immune response? Anything that gets into the body is picked up by a certain type of white blood cell. These white blood cells are able to detect things that are 'foreign' in the body
What's the next stage? They engulf the microbes and digest them
What's special about the white blood cells that do this? They are non specific so attack anything that isn't meant to be there
What type is another type of white blood cell? Specific that only attack specific organisms
What do the receptors on these white blood cells do? Recognise specific antigens.
What is an antigen? Substances on the surface of a microbe that trigger immune responses; often protein molecules
What is an antibody? Produced by these white blood cells. They are proteins specific to a particular antigen - different organisms have different antigens so different antibodies are needed for each microorganism
What do antibodies do? Latch onto invading microorganisms and do one of 3 things: Mark the microorganism so other white blood cells can engulf and digest it Bind to an neutralise toxins or viruses Some can attach to bacteria and kill them directly
What happens when the antigen is recognised? It divides to make more identical cells with the correct antibody to fight the infection
What are memory cells? White blood cells that stay in the body after the infection has been bought
What is their job? To reproduce quickly if the same antigen enters the body so it can be fought quickly before symptoms are felt
What is this known as? Immunity
What do you inject during vaccination? A dead or inactive form of microorganism
What is special about these dead microorganisms? They still have the antigens on them.
What happens first when it is injected? Your body produces white blood cells with antibodies to fight these inactive microorganisms
What happens next? Memory cells are also produced
What is the importance of this? If the same type of organism enters the body again, the memory cells can rapidly reproduce to kill them off.
What is the impact of this? You are immune to the disease so you won't be sick of you get the disease again
What is an epidemic? A big outbreak of disease
How can epidemics be prevented? Vaccinating lots of people as there will be fewer people to pass it on
What happens if few people are vaccinated? There are a lot of people to spread the disease so lots of people will get ill
What is an issue with vaccines? Some people may experience side effects, but they aren't very serious in most cases. Also, genetic differences mean people may react differently, e.g. some people may need more to be effective
What are antimicrobials? Chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them without seriously harming your body
What are they useful for? Clearing up infections that the immune system is having trouble with
What's an example of a microbial? Antibiotics
What's the problem with antibiotics in relation to curing disease? They can only kill infections- not viruses e.g. what causes flus and colds
How can microorganisms become resistant to antimicrobials? Random mutations in DNA causes a microorganism to be resistant to an antibiotic. Therefore, it reproduces to form more resistant microorganisms.
What is the problem with this? They are resistant to the antibiotics so can't be easily gotten rid of and more superbugs are made.
What is a superbug? A microorganism resistant to most known antibiotics, such as MRSA
Why should you always finish you antibiotics - even if you feel better? It can increase the risk of more resistant bacteria as they haven't all been killed therefore are reproducing as resistant as only the 'strongest' will survive until the end
Why should you only take antibiotics when you really need to? They create a situation where naturally resistant bacteria have an advantage so will increase in numbers.
What is the first stage in a drugs trial? Trialing the drug on human cells that are created in a lab.
Why is this done? To measure the effect the drug will have on human cells
What's the next stage? Testing the drug on 2 different species of live mammal - often rats and monkeys
Why is this done? To make sure it won't be harmful to humans. The tests give an indication as mammals are similar to us. If there are problems, the drug won't go any further.
What is the next stage? Testing on healthy volunteers
Why is this done? To test the safety of a drug and make sure it has no harmful side effects
What's the next stage? Testing the drug on people suffering from the illness
Why is this done? To check the safety but also the effectiveness of a drug to see if and how well it actually works
Why do the human drug trials (clinical trials) last a long time? To ensure they're effective and safe to use and make sure there are no long-term side effects.
What is a placebo? 'Fake' treatments that don't actually do anything
Why are they used? To compare the effects with the people given the actual drug to see if it is the drug making them better or just the thought of it.
Why aren't they always used? In some cases, it may be unethical to not give people treatment, especially if the illness is serious, as they won't get the potential benefits of the drug
What will be shown if a drug works when using a placebo? Those that took the actual drug will improve more. Any side effects of the drug will be reported more by those who took it than the placebo.
What is an 'open-label' trial? A trial where both the scientists and the patient knows which treatment is being used. This is often when you can't mask the tested treatments e.g. one is a drug and one is exercise
What is a 'blind' trial? Where only the scientist knows which treatment is given and which is placebo. The patients don't know. This can test for psychological factors in illness treating if a placebo is used. If the patient knew, they may not feel better even if they're recovering.
What is a 'double-blind' trial? Neither the scientist or the patient knows who got which drug until after. This is so the scientist monitoring the results isn't subconsciously influenced by their knowledge.
How does the blood circulate around the body? In blood vessels
What is carried to the body cells? Oxygen and nutrients
What is carried away from the body cells? Carbon dioxide
How doe each side of the heart work? Double pump. Right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The left side pumps oxygenated blood around the body.
How is blood supplied to the heart? Through 2 coronary arteries which branch from the base of the aorta - the biggest artery in the body.
What are the 3 types of blood vessel? Artery Vein Capillary
What are the features of the artery? Carries the blood away from the heart Thick, strong and elastic walls
Why does it have these features? The blood is high pressure as it is being pushed around the body so the arteries must be able to withstand this.
What are the features of a vein? Carries the blood to the heart. Large lumen with thin walls Valves
Why does it have these features? The blood is a much lower pressure so the walls don't have to be thick. The lumen allows the blood to flow easier The valves ensure the blood flows in the right direction
What are the features of a capillary? Tiny branches of arteries Only one cells thick Permeable walls
Why does it have these features? Nutrients and oxygen can diffuse out/ carbon dioxide in to take away waste Thin increased rate of diffusion Blood is really close to every body cell to exchange substances
What is pulse rate? How many times your artery pulses in 1 minute
What happens when your heart contracts? Blood is forced out. Your blood pressure is highest
What happens when your heart relaxes? It's filling with blood. Your blood pressure is lowest
How can you measure blood pressure? Taking a reading of the pressure against artery walls.
What does each number represent in a measurement? The higher number is when the heart contracts and the lower number is when the heart relaxes
What can heart rate and blood pressure tell you? How healthy you are. The lower they are, the healthier you are.
What can cause high blood pressure? Fatty deposits building up in arteries, restricting the blood flow so the pressure increases as the same amount needs to get through a smaller gap
What can happen if a fatty deposit breaks through the inner lining of an artery? A blood clot may form around it. This could block the artery, or float and block another artery, cutting off the blood supply.
What can causes a heart attack? If a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, blood cannot be supplied to the heart. Therefore, it stops working. This can severely damage the heart or even be fatal.
What is epidemiology? The study of patterns of diseases and factors which affect them.
How can they identify factors that increase the risk of heart disease? By looking at lifestyle factors or genetic factors
How do they identify lifestyle factors? Study a group of people who all died from heart disease and look at their lifestyles, looking for what they call had in common.
How can they identify genetic factors? Map the genetic makeup of a large group of people and look for similarities oft those who have heart diseases and differences to the who don't.