Qualitative Analysis: Tests for cations and anions

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aq.NaOH: Dirty green ppt, insoluble in excess, turned reddish brown on standing in air. \[Fe^{2+} \]
aq.\(NH_3\) : Dirty green ppt, soluble in excess, dirty green solution. \[Fe^{2+} \]
aq.NaOH: Reddish-brown ppt, insoluble in excess. \[Fe^{3+} \]
Salt solution: Dark yellow. Aq.\(NH_3\) : Reddish brown ppt, soluble in excess, reddish-brown solution. \[Fe^{3+} \]
Salt solution: Pale blue. Aq.NaOH: blue ppt, insoluble in excess. \[Cu^{2+} \]
Salt solution: Pale blue. Aq.\(NH_3\) : Blue ppt, soluble in excess, dark blue solution. \[Cu^{2+} \]
aq.NaOH: White ppt, insoluble in excess. \[Ca^{2+} \]
aq.\(NH_3\) : No visible reaction. \[Ca^{2+} \]
aq.NaOH: White ppt, soluble in excess, colourless solution. \(Zn^{2+} \), \(Al^{3+} \), \(Pb^{2+} \) may be present
aq.\(NH_3\) : White ppt, soluble in excess, colourless solution. \[Zn^{2+} \]
aq.\(NH_3\) : White ppt, insoluble in excess. \(Al^{3+} \), \(Pb^{2+} \) may be present
aq.NaOH: No visible reaction. When warmed, colourless and pungent gas turns red litmus paper blue. \[NH_4^+ \]
\(Al^{3+} \), \(Pb^{2+} \) may be present. KI: No visible reaction. \[Al^{3+} \]
\(Pb^{2+} \), \(Al^{3+} \) may be present. KI: Yellow ppt, insoluble in excess, some ppt dissolves when warmed, golden-yellow crystals form when cooled under running water. \[Pb^{2+} \]
Dilute acid: Effervescence, gas evolved forms white ppt in limewater. \(CO_2\) evolved. \(CO_3^{2-} \) ions present.
Aqueous \(Ba(NO_3)_2\): White ppt. Dilute \(HNO_3\) : White ppt, insoluble in diulte \(HNO_3\). \(SO_4^{2-}\)
Aq. \(AgNO_3\) : White ppt. Dilute \(HNO_3\): White ppt, insoluble in dilute \(HNO_3\). Aq. \(NH_3\) : Soluble in aq. \(NH_3\) , colourless solution \(Cl^- \)
aq. \(Pb(NO_3) _2\) : Yellow ppt. Dilute \(HNO_3\): Yellow ppt insoluble in dilute \(HNO_3\). Heat mixture till solid dissolves. Cool under tap: Yellow ppt dissolves, golden-yellow crystals form. \(I^- \)
aq. NaOH: Colourless solution. Devarda's alloy or Zn / Al powder. Heat gently: Vigorous effervescence observed. Colourless and pungent gas evolved turns red litmus paper blue. \(NH_3\) gas evolved, \((NO_3)^- \) ions present
aq.\(BaCl_2\): White ppt. Dilute HCl: ppt insoluble in acid. \(SO_4^{2-}\)
aq.\(AgNO_3\): Yellow ppt. Aq.\(HNO_3\): ppt insoluble in acid. Aq.\(NH_3\): ppt insoluble in aq. \(NH_3\) \(I^- \)
aq. \(Pb(NO_3) _2\) : White ppt. Dilute \(HNO_3\): Ppt insoluble in dilute acid. Heat mixture till solid dissolves, cool under tap: Ppt dissolves when heated to form colourless solution, reappears as shiny white crystals upon cooling. \(Cl^- \)
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