ANS 104 Midterm 2

Flashcards by patience.almazan, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by patience.almazan over 7 years ago


Focuses on Animal Sexual Behavior, Maternal Behavior, Social Behavior & Communication

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the 3 types of parental behavior? Parental Care Bi-Parental Care Maternal Care
What are primary sexual characteristics? Reproductive Organs
What are secondary sexual characteristics? Traits usually related to sexual dimorphism, but not directly involved in reproduction
What are the 4 types of monogamy? Serial Lifetime Sexual Social
What is serial monogamy? mate for just 1 season; may or may not mate with same individual in subsequent seasons
What is lifetime monogamy? Same partner until 1 dies
What is social monogamy? A male and a female associate as a pair (may have sex with other individuals)
What is sexual monogamy? Pairs that confine sexual relations to one another
Define Polygamy More than 1 sexual partner
What are the types of Polygamy? Polygyny Polyandry
What is polygeny? One male who has multiple female partners
What is polyandry? One female has multiple male partners
What are the two ways in which polygeny occurs? Male-to-Male Competition & Mate Choice
Describe Male-to-Male Competition Males compete for access to females
Describe Mate Choice Females choose males
What are the 4 Genetic Models within the Mate Choice Hypothesis? Direct Benefits Good Genes Sensory Bias Exploitation Runaway Selection
Describe the Direct Benefits Model Females choose males who can give the females access to the best resources
In the Direct Benefits Model, what are examples of resources that a male can offer a female? food/water resources, protection from predators and other males, offspring care (bi-parental care)
Describe the Good Genes Model Female chooses a mate that will father more fit offspring
Describe Runaway Selection Model Female chooses a male based upon secondary characteristics that exploit a sensory bias
Describe the Runaway Selection Model Female chooses a male based upon traits that have not been linked to increase survivability
Give an example of Runaway Selection A male peacock has a tail that is maladaptive (it doesn't increase his survivability) but females are attracted to it
What are the advantages of the Good Genes model? The female is able to transmit fitness advantage to her offspring. Offspring will be healthier, stronger, & have better survival skills
Give an example of Sensory Bias Model (Zebra Finches) Researchers attached artificial feathers of various colors. Female finches find facial markings attractive, so males that had a white artificial feather attached to their heads were able to mate more because the white feather extended the facial marking.
What is the general rule in Male-to-Male Competition? Bigger, Better, Faster=more matings
Is the general rule in Male-to-Male competition true in all situations? No, success can be density dependent.
Give an example of Polyandry Sexual Behavior S. American Janacas- females control access to multiple males by monopolizing critical resources. These females "super-territories" may encompass the nesting areas of several males. Females lay clutches of eggs in male territories & males incubate the eggs
Why do we care about sexual behavior? We care about sexual behavior because from an endangered species, agricultural and sports perspective. By learning components of animal sexual behavior people can develop breeding programs to aid in increasing endangered species populations, breed quality show or sports animals (such as Thoroughbreds) and increase reproductive success for animals in agriculture
What are the components of Male Sexual Behavior? Courtship/Pre-Mating Copulation/Intromission Libido Performance
What could go wrong with Male Sexual Behavior? Things could go wrong with Libido & Performance
What are the two things that could go wrong with libido? Internal & External Stimuli External: If his olfactory bulb is defective, he won't be able to detect pheromones in female urine Internal Hormonal State: If female is not receptive, than the male will not be able to mate with her
What could go wrong with Performance in Male Sexual Behavior? Courtship/Pre-Mating & Copulations/Intromission Courtship/Pre-Mating: If a male is unable to court the female correctly to ensure that she will be receptive. Copulation/Intromission: If the male does not know how to perform
Give an example of what could go wrong with courship/pre-mating Many birds dance in sync with one another. If the male misses a step, the female will not mate with him.
How might reproductive problems occur in captivity? Relaxed selection in captivity, Unintentional selection, Artificial selection for phenotypes that could interfere with performance, Inappropriate rearing conditions
Explain how relaxed natural selection in captivity can be a problem? The goals of captive breeding programs is to maintain genetic diversity, with no regard for behavioral diversity. As a result, individuals with low libido are able to reproduce.
What are the effects of low libido (as a result of relaxed natural selection) in captivity? Animals display inadequate sexual behavior
Explain how unintentional selection in captivity can be a problem? People are attracted to docile individuals, so in an effort to avoid handling more aggressive individuals, people unintentionally select to breed docile individuals
How can artificial selection for phenotypes that interfere with performance be a problem? Commercial Turkeys: People choose for big chests/as a result male turkeys are unable to perform Bulldogs: People choose for narrow waists & big heads/as a result females cannot give birth naturally
How can inappropriate rearing conditions be problematic? In production systems, early weaning results in young individuals housed in same-age & sex groups/as a result, they don't know how to mate or have same-sex preferences. Hand-rearing animals such as whooping cranes can be problematic if humans teach the animals wrong signals
What are solutions for reproductive problems? Can fix problems using artificial selection if the traits are not fixed in the population. Can fix the problem by manipulating the rearing environment or restoring libido
How can you increase libido? Coolidge Effect: Introduce a new female Spectator Effect: Let animal watch other animals copulate
Why is duration & time of isolation in a rearing environment important? Rearing in isolation can have negative effects on animals depending on species. Guinea Pigs shouldn't be isolate for more than 77 days or the male will displace inappropriate sexual behavior
What are consequences of females not being able to choose their mates? In finches, the prefer to mate with males of the same color. When mix color, offspring wouldn't survive, less eggs hatched, etc.
What are benefits from female choice? Protection from predators & other males, Offspring Care: good genes, Transmit fitness advantages to their offspring so offspring are healthier, stronger, and have better survival skills, Good food/water resources, good shelter, nesting & densites.
What are the 3 types of Polygyny? Female Defense Resource Defense Male Dominance
Describe Female Defense Polygeny Males control access to females directly
Give an example of Female Defense Polygeny Male elk defend groups of female elk
Describe Resource Defense Polygyny Males control access to females indirectly by monopolizing critical resourcs
Give an example of Resource Defense Polygeny Individual male ring-necked pheasants defend territories during breeding season. Females are attracted to the resources within these territories, giving the male preferential access to females
Describe Male Dominance Polygyny Males aggregate during breeding season & females select mates from these aggregations.The more dominant males mate with more females.
When does Male Dominance Polygyny occur? When it is not feasible for males to monopolize mates or critical resources
Give an example of Male Dominance Polygyny Male Sagegrouse gather together in leks & females choose which male she will mate with
Which type of sexual behavior is favored for domestication: Monogamy or Polygamy & why? Polygamous species are favored for domestication since only a few males are needed to impregnate many females, thus reducing the total # of individuals needing to be accommodated & needed to maximize the reproductive success of the population.
What is looked at during a breeding soundness exam? Reproductive Organs: internal & external, Semen Quality, Physical health/conformation: teeth, vision, legs, body condition
What is natural cover? Females & males are in pasture & mate with whoever they want. No human intrusion.
Define Oligotocous bearing few young
Define Polytocous Bearing many young (often in litters & clutches)
Define Altricial "requires nourishment" Less developed
Define Precocial "mature before its time" More developed
Give an example of a species that is oligotocous with precocial young cattle; usually have one or two calves that are more developed
Give an example of a species that is polytocous with precocial young chickens, ducks; bear many young (in litter/clutches) that are more developed
Give an example of species that is Polytocous with altricial young rats, mice, cats, dogs; bear many young (in litters/clutches) that are less developed
Define Parity the state of having borne offspring
Define Nulliparous never having borne offspring
Define Primiparous 1st time having offspring
Define Multiparous having borne offspring more than once
List the components of Maternal Care Nesting, maternal responsiveness, maternal discrimination, maternal care, termination of maternal care
Describe "Nesting" behavior restlessness, nest seeking, nest building, wandering, isolation
Describe the Sensitive Period Discrete window of time during which a specific behavior is acquired such as song acquisition, species-specific behaviors, etc.
In regards to maternal care, what behavior is acquired during the sensitive periods in pregnant females? Maternal Responsiveness: mother forms bond with offspring
Describe Maternal Responsiveness Begins with a female responding to all babies, and ends with individual recognition & discrimination of offspring by mother
Describe Maternal Discrimination A mother knows the difference between her own babies and other babies
What is Parental Investment? Any investment by parents that increases the survival of offspring while decreasing the ability of parents to invest in other offspring (including the parent's own survival)
What are the 2 types of Parental Investment? Direct & Indirect
Describe Direct Parental Investment Investment that has an immediate physical impact on offspring survival (such as provisioning, lactation, nursing, feeding, huddling)
Describe Indirect Parental Investment Behaviors that affect offspring survival, but not immediately (such as protection, defending/maintaining resources like nest site, food sources, and predator defense)
How are parental investments viewed from the perspective of the parents? The parents view investments as costs
Describe the Optimal Parental Investment Maximize individual's adult LIFETIME reproductive success and not necessarily each offspring or reproductive event
Describe Maternal Investment Any investment by mother that increases the survival of offspring while decreasing the ability of the mother to invest in other offspring (including mother's own survival)
How are maternal investments viewed from the mother's perspective? Investments are seen as costs from the mother's perspective
Describe Optimal Maternal Investment Maximize mother's LIFETIME reproductive success & not necessarily each offspring or reproductive event
What are forms of maternal care? Prior to Parturition At Parturition Post Partum
Describe Prior to Parturition Nesting, gestation, brooding
Describe At Parturition Labor, Licking
Give examples of Post-Partum Maternal Care Lactation, protection, provision
Give an example of how Maternal Care is costly Female dungs beetles who maximize the survival of her offspring by making larger brood masses produce larger offspring
When does the Parent-Offspring conflict typically occur? During Termination of Maternal Care (when the mother needs to stop caring for her young)
Define Parasite An organism that lives in or on its host and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense
Define Offspring An organism that lives with its parents and benefits by deriving care at the parent's expense
True or False: Offspring make the perfect parasite. True!
Describe Optimal Maternal Investment Maximize mother's LIFETIME reproductive success & not necessarily each offspring or reproductive event
Why does a mother need to terminate maternal care? A mother needs to terminate maternal care in order to maximize her lifetime reproductive success. The mother needs to live & be healthy & strong enough to invest in future offspring. So she must terminate maternal care because she can't give everything to her current offspring.
What are the steps in the weaning process? Take away milk & Separate offspring from mother
Define Social Organization How we define groupings of animals that cooperate
List the costs of being social Increased competition for food mates, nest sites, resources, Increased parasite & disease exposure, Increase conspicuousness, Increased opportunities for nest parasitism
List the benefits of being social Decreased vulnerability to predation more eyes to detect predators, more animals to defend against predators (dilution/flooding), Increased access to different food (bigger prey, clumped, seasonal sources), Increased defense against other competitors, Increased offspring care, Thermoregulation
Describe Social Tolerance Animals that have a common goal tolerate each other's presence. There are species & individual differences for how much they will tolerate. The amount of tolerance is affected by the environment & internal state of the animals.
Give an example of social tolerance Zebras & wildebeest migrating together: they are tolerating each other because they both have a common goal.
What factors are involved in Cooperation? Social Tolerance Individual Recognition Fairly Strong Bonds Competition
Describe Social Organization Relies on dominance behavior, there are different types of social organizations such as dominance hierarchies & territoriality
What are the types of Dominance Hierarchies? Despotic Linear
What are characteristics of hierarchies (in general)? Hierarchies apply to the group & are maintained by individuals
Describe Despotic Hierarchy Only 1 individual is dominant over all others in all situations; no rank differences among the rest;usually observed when highly territorial individuals are found in high density situations
Give an example of animals with a Despotic Hierarchy Mice
Describe Linear Hierarchy There is one dominant individual; rank differences among the rest; observed in smaller groups, tend to be most stable; variations on strict linear hierarchies also exist
Give an example of animals that have a linear hierarchy Wolves
What is "Signaling Out of Context"? When a young animal exaggerates it's needs; sometimes animals benefit by being dishonest
Give an example of an animal "signaling out of context" A young animal complaining to its mother that it needs more nourishment than it actually needs
What are consequences in early weaning of piglets? Increased Stress; Abnormal behavior such as ear sucking
What are the benefits for piglets in the farrowing system? Piglets don't get squashed; mom can't leave, so piglets get to eat more
What are characteristics of Dominance Hierarchies? All rely on stability May be complete or partial May be unisexual or heterosexual
Why is stability necessary for dominance hierarchies? Stability is important for maintaining a hierarchy; Disruptions in the stability of a hierarchy cause physical & psychological stress
What are the pre-requisites for stability within a dominance hierarchy? Individual Recognition, Requires means for reinforcing relationships (such as using displays or aggression to reinforce relationships or social standings of individuals), Integrity of group composition (adding or returning individuals is worse than removing them)
Describe how a dominance hierarchy can be complete Complete (Unidirectional) means that 1 individual is clearly dominant of another
What are the benefits of having a complete dominance hierarchy? Dominance hierarchies that are complete tend to be more stable.
What kind of animals are usually found in complete dominance hierarchies? Complete dominance hierarchies are commonly seen among sexually mature animals
Describe how a dominance hierarchy can be partial Partial (bidirectional): A dominance hierarchy where it is not always clear that 1 individual is dominant because less dominant individuals are more likely to challenge the more dominant individuals.
What are characteristics of Partial Dominance Hierarchies? Partial Dominance Hierarchies are less stable & seen more commonly among younger animals
How do animals form dominance hierarchies based on gender? Usually, in sexually dimorphic social groups, sexes can sort themselves out according to different hierarchies
Give an example of a species of animal that forms dominance hierarchies based upon gender Bulls & cows
Define Personal Space the area surrounding an individual which, if encroached upon by another individual, results in an agonistic response by the former
What is an agonistic response? aggression or avoidance
What is personal space dependent upon? time of day environmental conditions internal states
What are responses to encroachment? Affiliative, which promotes group cohesion & Agonistic, which is expressed due to conflict
Give an example of animals that respond affiliatively to encroachment Monkeys often respond affiliatively to encroachment because they perform mutually grooming, etc.
Describe hwo a subordinate animal will response agonistically to encroachment if relative inter-individual distance is big. The subordinate will react with neutral avoidance by avoiding eye contact or with active avoidance by keeping the encroacher outside of personal space
Describe how a dominant animal will respond agnostically to encroachment if relative inter-individual distance is big. The dominant animal will respond agonistically by using a threat display
Describe agonistic responses to encroachment if relative inter-individual distance is small. If relative inter-individual distance is small, then animals will respond by using offensive or defensive behavior
What is communication? The provision of a signal (typically containing information) from one individual (the sender) to another individual (the receiver), which can be used to make a decision
What are signals selected for? Signals are selected to elicit a beneficial response
Give some examples of communication signals coloration, sound, movement, scent
Define Signal a packet of energy/matter generated by one individual (the sender) which is naturally selected for it's effects in altering the receiver's behavior, which typically conveys information which the receiver uses to make a decision
What is the purpose of communication? To influence the receiver.
What dos the sender want from the receiver? The sender wants the receiver to respond in a way that is beneficial to the sender.
In communication, what kind of receivers does natural selection favor? Natural selection favors the survival of receivers that use the information provided by the sender to make good decisions
What does transmission through the environment affect? Signal Fidelity
What is Signal Fidelity affected by? Transmission of a signal through the environment
What type of environment best enables an animal's signal to propagate? Signals used by an animal will propagate through the environment best if the animal is in the environment in which is adapted for (or in which the animal is normally found)
What are characteristics of signals? Signals are often exaggerated or ritualized
Give an example of a signal that is exaggerated or ritualized. Male wolf spider's movements during courtship are both exaggerated and ritualized
How do researchers determine the function of signals? By interpreting the receiver response
True or False: Signals are selected to convey information. False, Signals are selected to elicit a beneficial response.
If signals are not selected to convey information, what are they selected to do? Elicit a beneficial response
What kind of signals are evolutionarily favored? informative signals
What kind of signals are receivers naturally selected to respond to? Informative Signals
What happens to senders that send useless signals? Those senders will not elicit beneficial responses from receivers & natural selection will not favor their survival. So those senders will die & the useless signal that that sender send will not longer be used. Only useful/informative signals are evolutionarily favored.
Define Cue An action or trait from which a receiver may acquire information & make a decision, but it has not been selected to alter the behavior of receivers
Give an example of a cue the noise a mouse makes when foraging. An owl will use that noise (or cue) to locate the mouse & kill him
Define Eavesdropping The exploitation of a cue by a receiver
Is eavesdropping considered communication? No, because there is not a signal being sent
When discussing communication, which is important: intention or natural selection? Natural Selection; Intention is irrelevant
What is True Communication? the exchange of a signal between a sender and receiver that benefits both parties
What is the goal of the sender in True Communication? To produce a signal to increase the chance that the receiver will choose an action that is beneficial to the sender
What is the goal of the receiver in True Communication? To increase its chance of choosing an action that will benefit itself
Are animals being altruistic in True Communication? No, animals benefit because both parties have common interests or have reached a stalemate
Define Manipulation/Deceit When an individual (sender) sends dishonest or deceptive signals that benefit the sender, but lead the receive to respond sub-optimally (against their own interests)
Give an example of an animal using Manipulation/Deceit An Angler Fish or Baby Cuckoo & Adult Warbler
In Manipulation/Deceit, do receivers always fall for the sender's signals? No, receivers are expected to evolve resistance or the ability to detect cheats
Is Manipulation/Deceit considered to be Communication? Yes, it is a type of communication, but not True Communication
Is Manipulation/Deceit considered True Communication? No, because it is not mutually beneficial
Define Ritualization The process of signal evolution from a cue
Describe evolution of a cue into a signal Begin with a cue & if the sender benefits from the receiver's response to the cue, the cue will be modified into a true signal via the process of ritualization
What does Ritualization include? At least one of the following: Simplification, Exaggeration, Repetition, Stereotypy, Emancipation from original context
Give an example of a cue evolving into a signal via the process of ritualization A male wolf spider scurries around & a female wolf spider is attracted to the male's rapid foot movements. The male benefits from the female's response & begins to modify the cue into a true signal via the process of ritualization
Which of the following represents Communication: True Communication Eavesdropping Deceit/Manipulation Spite/Ignoring True Communication & Deceit/Manipulation because a signal is being sent
What do animals send to one another? Sender Identity
List the levels at which identity can be identified? Species ID Group ID Individual ID Location of Sender
How do animals communicate Species ID? Animals use signals to identify conspecifics for purposes such as mating, flocking, or other social interactions
How do animals communicate Group ID? Animals within a social unit share one or more variants of a given signal type.
What are the types of social unit that communicate Group ID? members of the same sex, age group, mated pair, family group, foraging group, night roosting group, etc.
Give an example of a species of animals that uses signals to identify Group ID Killer whales: Different pods have different signals
How do animals communicate Individual ID? By sending signals such as locational cues
Why do animals use signals to communicate Individual ID? To facilitate parent-offspring recognition
How do animals communicate Location of Sender? They adjust signal properties to make location of signal source obvious or difficult to determine
Why do animals use signals to determine location of senders? Because few animals can indicate their location semantically (like humans do)
Give an example of signals that make location easy to detect Staccato broadband sounds are easier to detect
Give an example of signals that make location of sender difficult to determine Single low or high frequency sounds with gentle onsets or offsets are more difficult to locate
Is a parasite always a parasite or a host always a host? No. Sometimes they can switch back & forth, but most are either obligate parasites or obligate hosts.
Give the term that describes exchanges of information in which the best decision is dependent upon the context of the situation in which the receiver and sender are in. Context-Dependent Exchanges
Describe Context-Dependent Exchanges The decision a receiver makes is dependent upon the circumstance or context that the animal is in. The kinds of decisions that are useful to senders are also context-dependent.
List the 7 basic contexts in which signals are used by receivers to make decisions. 1. Conflict 2. Territoriality 3. Mate Attraction 4. Parent Offspring Exchanges 5. Social Integration 6. Environmental Information 7. Auto Communication
Describe how animals use communication signals to resolve conflict. Animals rarely fight to the death, but more often exchange signals until they can determine without fighting who would win if they escalated.
Describe the importance of communication and signals in regards to conflict. Communication and signals can be important in solving conflict between animals.
When do animals usually engage in fighting? If they are equally matched, then the conflict will have to be settled through fighting.
Give an example of animals communicating conflict. Stalk-eyed flies compare the length of each other's eyes. If one is bigger than that individual is more dominant. If they are the same length then they fight to determine who is more dominant.
Describe how animals use communication and signals to determine territoriality. Animals use signals to communicate where one animal's territory is. They maintain their territories by announcing their continued presence with signals.
Is fighting or conflict ever involved during disputes over territoriality? Yes, but it is minimized by the use of communication.
Give an example of animals using signals to communicate their continued presence in order to maintain territoriality. Capybara uses glands near eyes to mark territory. Birds fly around their territory singing songs. Insects use vocalizations.
Do animals use signals and communication to aid in mate attraction? Yes! Usually males have to persuade females to mate & females assess the males to choose the best mate. This involves signals.
Give an example of an animal using signals to aid in mate attraction. A peacock uses colorful visual displays to attract a mate.
Why do animals use signals to communicate in Parent-Offspring exchanges? Parents adjust care & food depending on the number of offspring & relative need, whereas offspring usually want more for themselves; signals help mediate this conflict.
Describe the conflict that occurs between parent and offspring from both the parental perspective & the offspring perspective. Parents adjust the amount of food depending on the number of offspring & the needs of the offspring. From the parent perspective, they are trying to allocate the food so that all the offspring survive. From the offspring perspective, they want to survive & want as much food as they can get. In this way, the parent & the offspring have conflicting goals.
What is it called when animals use signals to maintain the benefits of staying in a group? Social Integration
Describe why animals use signals for Social Integration. Signals are used to aid in coordinating the activities within a social group. The main benefit of staying in a group is this activity coordination. To maintain these benefits a group must stay together. Signals are used to keep the group together during these activities.
Give an example of a signal being used to keep a social group together. Golden Lion Tamirins use contact calls while foraging to maintain contact with individuals in the group. There are also separation calls for when an individual gets separated from the group. Movement initiation calls are used before a group leaves to inform everyone that the group is about to leave so no one gets left behind.
Why would an animals use signals to communicate environmental information? Communicating environmental information is important for many reasons including for announcing food finds or alarm signals to alert others to predator risks.
Give an example of animals communicating environmental information to each other. Honeybees use a waggle dance to communicate food finds & direction of food. Marmots send alarm calls to communicate danger.
Describe Auto Communication and why an animal will use it. Auto Communication is when the differences between outgoing and returning signals is used to provide information about the environment. Animals use this to become more aware of their environment.
Give an example of animals using Auto Communication. Bats & toothed whales use sonar. Electric fish use electrical signals.
Describe the process of signal use in Auto Communication. The animal produces a signal and listens to the signal when it returns to gather information about its surroundings.
What impacts the form that signals take? Sensory physiology & signal production mechanisms
What do you consider when looking at Sender Mechanisms? You look at the sender & what it is about the sender that determines the type of signals they produce.
What do you consider when looking at Receiver Mechanisms? What it is about the receiver that makes the sender determine the best signal to get a response from the receiver.
True or False: Not all senders could (or should) make all signals. True!
Why can't all senders make all signals? There are constraints in opportunity in the mechanism of signal production. These constraints affect the forms that signals take.
What is the overarching principle when considering Sender & Receiver Mechanisms? Natural Selection
Describe how signals reflect evolutionary history & contsraints. Signals reflect evolutionary history & constraints because Natural Selection works with the raw material available. For example, mutations come about & if they are beneficial, they spread throughout the population.
What do signals evolve from? Cues
Do animals create new signals? Why or why not? No, they elaborate cues into signals.
Give an example of an animal elaborating a cue into a signal to communicate. Intention Movements: When an animal produces an aggressive signal (such as 'stay away from me') it produces the signal that is the 1st stage of an attack. So Intention Movements are movements made to communicate intentions. The animal has modified the cue (behavior of 1st stage of attack) into a signal to communicate with another animal.
Give another example (other than Intention Movements) of an animals elaborating a cue into a signal to communicate. Young baboons will modify Mating Intentions into signals. For example, when a young baboon is being instigated by an adult male, the juvenile will assume the position that a female does when she is ready to mate. By doing this, the juvenile is able to stop the adult from being aggressive. The animal has modified a cue (mating intention behavior) into a signal to communicate.
Name one other way that forms forms of signals can be affected? Signals are limited by the laws of physics
Give an example of how possible signals are limited by the laws of physics? Body size & vocal chord size limit the amplitude (loudness) of the sounds produced
How do animals use tricks to produce signals that are not limited by the laws of physics? Animals use tricks like large resonators to make very loud sounds, but these tricks have limits. Large resonators limit the signals that the animals can make to very simple sounds.
Give an example of an animal using a resonator to produce signals & explain the limits of that resonator. Howler monkeys use large resonators to produce loud sounds, but the resonator limits them to only being able to produce simple sounds.
What else limits the forms that signals take? The environment
How does the environment limit signal form? Signals must travel from the sender to the receiver by propagating through the environment. Propagation varies by habitat.
How does Natural Selection govern signal propagation? Natural Selection favors signals that are well-matched (propagate well) in the habitats in which they are used.
Give an example of an animal that uses a signal well-matched for the environment. A bird jumps up in tall grass in order to stand out and attract mates. This signal is visual and visually propagates through the environment well.
True or False: You see a match between the type of signals an animal uses and the effectiveness in propagating that signal through the environment. True!
What do senders consider when looking at Receiver Mechanisms? Senders consider which type of signal is most effective in stimulating the sensory & perceptual system of the receiver.
What is the function of a signal? & how does a signal elicit a response from a receiver? The function of a signal is to elicit a response from the receiver. In order to do this, a signal must match with the sensory & perceptual system of the receiver.
What does Umwelt mean? Means Sensory World.
What is the concept of Umwelt? The concept that each animal has a sensory world. In order to understand what the animal sees, hears, and smells, you have to try to get inside the Umwelt of that animal.
What determines an animal's Umwelt? the physiology of the sensory organs & the brain (which is affected by the environment)
Give an example of senders communicating signals that match the Umwelt of the receiver. Birds will modify the tune of the signal they send depending on the sensory sensitivity (Umwelt) of the receiver.
How do animals maintain honesty when communicating? How do animals detect liars? There are costs or restraints imposed on senders to guarantee honesty. This cost is different for each context.
List the types of honest signaling Quality Handicap Signals Index Signals Proximity Signals Costly Conventional Signals
Describe the concept of Quality Handicap Signals Signals need cost to maintain honesty, so animals pay fitness costs for their ornaments (the animals use up some of what they are advertising)
Give an example of an animal using a Quality Handicap Signal Widowbirds have a long tail. Although this long tail is useful in attracting mates, it also attracts predators.
Describe the concept of Index Signaling Index Signals keep signals honest because these type of signals are limited by the environment, phylogenetic history of the animal & physics. These limits prevent cheating.
Are Index Signals always costly to senders? How do they prevent cheating? No, they aren't always costly to signalers. They prevent cheating because overcoming the constraints would require costs too large to bear.
Give an example of animals using Index Signals. Tigers scratch trees to mark their territory. The height of those scratch marks tell the size of the cat. The height is limited by the cat's size, so it can't cheat. Deer have elaborate facial markings that make it obvious when a predator has been seen. The deer can't fake this signal because the animal has to see the predator in order to display that signal.
Describe Proximity Signals Threat signals given in conflict contexts, where the cost that guarantees honesty is a close approach to the rival.
How does animal ensure that its Proximity Signals are effective? The sender must approach close enough to risk attack & injury for the display to be effective.
Give an example of animals using Proximity Signals to communicate. Great-Tailed Grackles use a 'bill up' threat display, which increases vulnerability. Cats use defensive threat signals, by protecting its most vulnerable body regions & placing weapons (claws/teeth) in a position to defend itself.
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