Criminology Chapter 8

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Grant Macewan Uni. Criminology 225 criminology in Canada: theories, patterns, and typologies L.J. Siegel C. McCormick

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Neighborhood deterioration & disorganization does not account for... doesn't explain why 2 ppl from the same neighborhood follow different paths of criminality and non criminality
Social process theories looks at operation of formal & informal social institutions, socialization w/in family, peer group, schools, legal system
Socialization Process of human development and enculturation. Primary socialization takes place in family, & 2ndary socialization takes place in institutions
Social process: all ppl have potential to become delinquent or law-abiding citizens
7 Parental factors 1) intervention b/w ages 4-9 2) strain on single parents 3) inadequate supervision 4) delinquent mother or father 5) neighborhood socio-economic condition 6)warm affectionate ties & parental efficacy 7) Abuse, Neglect
5 Educational experience 1) lack of achievement 2) bullied or aggressed upon 3) emotional support 4)stigma 5)labeling
stigmatization create an enduring label that taints a person's ID and changes him/ her in eyes of others
5 peer relation 1) emotional support 2) navigating rela. 3) bullying/ abuse 4) peer-dating violence 5) peer pressure
2 institutional involvement and belief 1) religious binds to healthy behavior 2) convention to societal norms
Social learning theory view that Bhav is modeled through observation of human interaction, either directly from observing others or indirectly through media. conditioning through reward/ punishment
control theory approach looking at ability of society and its institutions to control, manage, restrain, or direct human Bhav; sometimes called social control theory
labeling theory view that society creates deviance through designation of individual Bhav as deviant. stigmatized individual feels unwanted & accepts labels as ID
SLT 3 forms: 1) differential association 2) differential reinforcement t. 3) neutralization t.
differential association(DA) t. Edwin H Sutherland, Principles of Criminology
DA principle that criminal acts are related to persons exposure to an excess amount of Antisocial attitudes & values
8 DA Principles 1) learned as any other Bhav 2) Crime is interaction 3) learning deviance occurs w/in intimate groups 4)includes learning tech. for crime, motives, attitudes rationalizations 5) different views of maintaining views 6) criminal perceives more benefits then bad consequences 7. vary in frequency, duration, intensity 8. learning definitions favorable to criminality produce illegal Bhav
criticisms of DA 1) vague definitions 2) difficult to test 3) police are constantly associating w/ criminals= criminal Bhav 4) some ppl become socialized into deviant or conformity society 5) does not explain class differences 6) not everyone succumbs to there criminal learning
Differential Reinforcement Theory Akers and Burgess view on crime is a type of learned Bhav, combining differential association w/ elements of psychological learning
Direct Conditioning when BHav is either rewarded or punished during interaction w/ others
Differential Association learning from direct or indirect interaction w/ others
Imitation observational learning experiences, ex media
cognitive definitions attributes that are favorable or unfavorable toward a Bhav can either stimulate or extinguish Bhav
Neutralization Theory Matza and Sykes offenders adhere to conventional values while drifting into periods of illegal Bhav by neutralizing legal & moral values
subterranean values morally tinged influences that become entrenched in culture but are publicly condemned by convention members of society
drift movement of youth in & out of delinquency b/c their lifestyles can embrace both deviant & conventional values
techniques of neutralization strategies used by deviants to counteract moral constraints so that they may drift into criminal acts, a cognitive dissonance strategy
10 techniques of neutralization 1. Deny responsibility 2. Deny injury 3. Deny victim 4. Condemn of condemners 5. Appeal to higher loyalties 6. defense of necessity 7. metaphor of ledger 8. denial of necessity 9.claim everybody does it 10. claim of entitlement
1 advantages of Social learning theories study delinquent and criminal Bhav across social class structure
2 criticisms of social learning T 1) don't explain spontaneous acts of violence 2) 70% of ppl are on drugs when committing a crime - do drug addicts neutralize values?
Social Control theories all people have potential to violate law from opportunities society presents
commitment to conformity a positive orientation to rules of society, whereby individual internalizes those rules
self-rejection consequence of successfully being labeled, whereby negative stigma is internalized
containments internal & external factors that insulate youths from delinquency-promoting situations: strong self-concept & positive support from parents & teachers
Internal pushes personal factors as restlessness, discontent, hostility, rebellion, mental conflict, anxieties, need for immediate gratification
external pressure adverse living conditions that influence deviant Bhav: poverty, minority status, unemployment, opportunity
external pulls deviant companies, membership in criminal subculture, influence of mass media
Causes of Delinquency Travis Hirschi Social Bond
Social Bond ppl are kept under control through fear of damaging their potential rela. w/ friends, family; weak social bonds lead to crime
4 elements of social bond 1) attachment- caring for others 2) commitment- wish for money/ future 3) involvement- w/in school, activities 4) belief- in rights & respect of others
2 Criticisms of Social Bond T 1) doesn't explain strong bonds in deviant sub groups 2) little distinction in importance of elements
symbolic interaction theory view that ppl communicate meaning and interpret reality on basis of their interpretation of symbols
Different existing labels mental disorder/ patient, victim, insane, smart, honest, hard-worker, attractive, intelligent, competence, troublemaker, mentally ill, stupid
social deviant a person who had been labeled as an outsider at home, work, school, social situations
criminals are labeled as ex-con, drug addict, hard to find job
crime and deviance are defined by: social audience reaction to persons Bhav and subsequent effects of reaction, not moral content of illegal act
moral entrepreneurs interest groups that attempt to control social life and legal order for purpose of prompting their own set of moral values
social distance a person can be labeled as deviant b/c of differences in power b/w labeller and person labelled; differences are typically those of race, class, ethnicity
two effects of labelling 1) creation of stigma 2) effect on self-image
master status an ID that overrides all others, such as drug dealer being a more important status than citizen
dramatization of evil Tannenbaum's pioneer study of labelling process whereby reaction to deviance sets up a feedback effect that individual internalizes
primary deviance lemart deviant acts that go undetected or unsanctioned, thus do not help redefine self, & public image of offender
secondary deviance Lemart deviant acts that are sanctioned, after w/h the deviant label becomes a basis for person ID
General Deviance Theory people conform to social group standards face negative sanctions, considered failures w/ similar labeled peers
social sanctions lead to self-rejection, deviant peer association, eventual deviance amplification
Differential Social Control Heimer and Matsueda self-evaluations reflect actual or perceived appraisals made by others, self-filling prophecies
reflective role-taking experience in w/h youths who view themselves as delinquent give an inner-voice to their perceptions of how significant others feel about them
reflected appraisal a youth's self-evaluation that is based on his/her persecutions of how others evaluate them
research of labeling theories go in 2 distinct categories 1) offenders who are chosen for negative labels are likely to be powerless ppl unable to defend themselves 2) attempts to discover effects of being labeled
3 effects of labeling 1) once labeled Bhav changes 2) self-labeling is produced by intensive official labeling 3) labeling over time sustains criminality
3 criticism of labeling theory 1) fails to explain difference in crime rates 2) deviance is relative 3) labeling often follows rather than precedes chronic offending
3 Advantages to labeling theory 1) IDs roles played by social control agents in process of crime causation 2) criminality is not a disease or pathological Bhav. focuses on interactions & reactions 3) distinguishes b/w criminal acts/ career
2 Advantages of Integrated Development Theory 1) practical 2) substantive
developmental criminology an approach that examines change in a criminal career over life course: biological, social, psychological factors involved in desistance, resistance, escalation, specialization
3 groups of integrated theories 1) multifactor theories 2) latent trait theories 3) life-course theories
multifactor theories combine influences of variables that have been used in structural, socialization, conflict, choice, trait theories
latent traits stable features, characteristics, properties, conditions that are present at birth or soon after & that lead some ppl to be crime-prone over their life course
life-course theory criminal offending patterns change over a person's entire life, influences by conditions or events that occur at various stages in life
Multifactor theories view that attempt to integrate individual factors and independent concepts into complex, coherent explanations of criminality
Social developmental model (SDM) attempt to integrate social control, social learning, structural models of crime
3 Multifactor theory 1) rational choice to commit crime 2) decision is tempered w/ control theory/social bonds 3) and by learning theory
SDM- children develop bonds to family through 4 ways: 1) their perceived opportunities for involvement in activities & interactions w/ others 2) Their degree of involvement & interaction w/ others 3) Their development of skills needed to participate in these interactions 4) Their perceived reinforcement as a result of their participation
pro-social bonds - SDM bonds developed w/in context of a family life that provide pro-social opportunities & consistent, positive feedback
Elliott's Integrated Theory combines strain, social learning, control theories into single theoretical model
a-h) Elliot's Integrated Theory a) improperly socialized b) face a significant risk of perceiving strain c) perceptions of strain then lead to weakened bonds w/ conventional groups, activities, norms d) weak conventional bonds & high levels of perceived strain lead some youths to reject conventional social values e) seek out deviant peer groups f) delinquent associations come positive reinforcement & role model for deviance g) high levels of delinquent Bhav when high attachment of social bonds to delinquents h) adolescents who live in socially disorganized areas
Integrated Structural Marxist theory looks at influence of a person's position w/in relation of material production
4 Integrated structural marxist theory 1) capitalist economic system: workplace environment, competition 2) Family relations: Strain, Alienation 3) Adolescent conflict: poor schools, social maladjustment, strain 4) Deviant peers: violence, theft
Glueck Research life cycle of delinquent careers
Glueck Research early onset suggests a criminal career can begin in life b/c ppl who are deviant at a very young age are likely to persist in crime throughout their lifetime
4 ways in w/h deviance increases in children Glueck Research 1) lack of parental supervision 2) social rejection by peers 3) commitment to deviant peer group 4) improperly socialized by unskilled parents
4 cognitive transformation 1. shift in actor's basic openness to change 2. Exposure to particular hook or set of hooks for change 3. willingness to establish a "new ID" 4. tansformation in way actor views deviant Bhav, or lifestyle, itself
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