Personality Psychology Chapter 10

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Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss
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New contemporary Psychoanalysts Drew Westen: no longer write about ids, superegos, repressed sexuality
5 Drew Westen's definition of Psychoanalysis 1. unconscious plays a major role 2. Bhav reflects conflicts in mental processes: emotion, motivation, thoughts 3. Childhood important in personality deve. 4. Mental representations of self & others guide interactions 5. Personality deve. has to do w/ immature or socially dependent ways of Bhav
false memories Loftus not all recovered memories should be viewed as false or true, instead being aware of what creates false memories and how they are constructed
Major Problems leading to false memories 1) leading questions 2) suggestions interviewers 3) interpretative of symptoms as signs of trauma 4) hypnosis 5) authority pressuring 6) dream interpretations
imagination inflation effect a memory is elaborated through imagination, confusing the person w/ real and fake events
misinformation effect in a lab giving a person misinfo. instilled by exposing subject to questions
confirmatory bias tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch & not look for evidence that might dis-confirm their beliefs; to oppose this must gain valid facts
spreading activation Roediger & McDermott model of memory, mental elements are stored in memory along w/ association to other elements in memory
constructive memory memory contributes to or influences in various ways what is recalled, memory is fallible and open to error
cognitive unconscious readily acknowledge that info can get into our memories w/out ever being aware of info.
motivated unconscious idea of info. that is unconscious can actually motivate or influence subsequent Bhav.
subliminal perception perceptions that bypasses conscious awareness, usually achieved through very brief exposure times, typically less than 30 milliseconds
priming makes associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than is material that is not primed
id psychology Freudian psychoanalysis, sex and aggression
ego psychology Erik Erikson's, ego is involved in mastering environment, achieving ones goals, establishing identity
identity crisis Eriksons desperation & confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of Identity
eight stages of development argument that personality develops through the whole lifespan of a person, dividing into 8 major stages
psychosocial conflict crisis's that develop personality are inherently social rather then psychosexual conflicts
stage model of development ppl go through stages in certain order and that there is specific issue that characterize each stage
developmental crisis each stage contains a conflict that can be resolved
personality development erikson maintained the notion that if a crisis was not successful & adaptively resolved, person would become fixated on this stage
Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust children need there basic needs met, will develop a sense of trust in caregivers, initiating basis for future relationships; or lifelong feeling of estrangement, social discomfort, isolation, suspicion
Stage 2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt when a child feels a sense of control and mastery over things, develops self-confidence & autonomy; if parents are restricting may feel shame and doubt over goals
Initiative vs Guilt through play, imitation begin to gain sense of initiative, ambition, goal seeking; or reinforced to failure/ not seeking goals
Industry vs Inferiority competition creating an idea of success, achievement, desire to do things; or sense of inferiority don't have talent/ ability to get ahead in life
Identity vs Role confusion identity achievement is main goal of this stage, very important, experimentation of all aspects of life: identity confusion
Identity confusion not having a strong sense of self
negative identity resolving crisis can lead to an identity founded on undesirable social roles
Identity foreclosure identity must be achieved committing self to one identity, if a person does not have a crisis/ forms ID w/out exploring: usually moralistic, conventional cannot provide rationale for beliefs
Moratorium taking time to explore options before making a commitment to ID, ex. college students exploring options, need to shop around for an suitable career/ ID
Intimacy vs Isolation need to develop rela, mutual satisfying/ intimate: ppl grow emo., caring, nurturing, supporting one another, form to commit to marriage; isolation is failure to find or maintain intimacy, seriously impair happiness & satisfaction
Generativity Vs Stagnation generating something that a person truly care about: career, family, activity; not caring, going through motions of life w/out passion
Integrity vs. Despair retiring causing w/drawal while looking at life & whether there is satisfaction from it leading to integrity; regret at the end of life causing bitterness, wanting to change the past
Karen Horney social power idea that male penis is symbol of power rather then an organ women desired, women desire social power
Karen Horney believed an individuals personality should be seen from culture/ history of ppl
Karen Horney fear of success highlight gender differences in response to competition & achievement situations; W= lose close friends when successful, M= gain friends if successful
self-serving basis consider ourselves worthwhile, like ourselves and others; tendency for ppl to take credit for successes yet deny responsibility of failure
narcissistic pardox a narcissist appears to be in high self-esteem; actually doubts self-worth, needs consistence reassurance, may become violent if blow to ego
Object relation theory emphasizes social relationships and origins in childhood to develop personality
Object relation theory assumptions 1) internal wishes, desires, urges of child are not as important as developing relationships w/ significant others 2) mother becomes internalized by child in form of mental object, creating ability to relate to object
Harlow monkey experiment attachment b/w infant & primary caregiver required physical contact w/ warm & responsive mother & vitally important to development
separation anxiety react negatively to separation & become agitated & distressed when mother leaves
strange situation procedure a procedure used for ID diff. among children in how react to separation
3 types of attachment 1) securely attached - patiently waiting 2) avoidantly attached - 20% aloof to mothers 3) ambivalently attached - crying & protesting leave of mother
working models internalized in form of unconscious expectations about rela.
3 adult relationship attachment styles Hazen & Shaver 1) secure rela. style:few problems deve. satisfying friends/ relas. 2) avoidant rela style: difficultly in trusting other, anticipate worst outcomes 3) ambivalent rela. style: vulnerability & uncertainty about rela., dependent & demanding
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