Personality Chapter 8 Evolution

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Macewan University Psychology 233 Personality Psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature 5th edition R.J. Larsen, D.M Buss

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natural selection processes by w/h adaptions are created over time
variants changes that are caused by adaptions that enable the species to survive
hostile forces of nature food shortage, diseases, parasites, predators, extreme weather
sexual selection Darwin 2nd theory of evolution evolution of characteristics based on mating benefits, rather than survival
2 forms of sexual selection 1) intrasexual competition: success from contests 2) intersexual selection: mates chosen based on particular quality
Genes packets of DNA inherited by children from parents in distinct chunks
differential gene reproduction reproductive success relative to others, genes that get spread more have a greater frequency than those that reproduce less
inclusive fitness theory modern evolution theory based on differential gene reproduction: characteristics that facilitate reproduction need not affect personal production of offspring, can affect survival of relatives
3 products of evolutionary process 1) adaptions 2) by products of adaptions 3) noise/ random variation
adaptive problems anything that impedes survival or reproduction, anything whose solution increases odds of survival or reproduction
adaptions primary product of selective process, reliable developing structure in organism causing a solution to an adaptive problem
4 adaption are specialized features used to problem-solve: 1) special design 2) efficiency 3) precision 4) reliability
xenophobia fear of strangers
byproductions of adaptions evolutionary process also produces things are not adaptions
evolutionary byproducts incidental effects that are not properly considered to be adaptions
Evolutionary noise/ random variation neutral in respect to selection, mutations that occur that have no effect on functioning and survival
Evolutionary psychology involves 3 features 1) domains specificity 2) numerousness 3) functionality
domain specific adaptions are designed by evolutionary process to solve particular adaptive problem, different adaptions need different solutions
numerous adaptive mechanisms needed to solve a variety of problems: heart, liver, spleen, larynx
functionality psychological mechanism sare designed to accomplish particular adaptive goals
2 women are highly invested in mate selection: 1) women will choose men willing to invest resources in them and children 2) will divorce men who fail to provide resources
deductive reasoning approach top-down theory driven method empirical research
inductive reasoning approach bottom-up, data method of empirical research, develop a theory that fits into observations
3 key perspectives in evolutionary hypothesis 1) human nature 2) sex differences 3) individual differences
human nature psychological mechanisms characterize a species over time
Hogan need for cooperative rela. w/ others in order to survive & reproduce, when someone is ostracized this is damaging
Social Anxiety distress & worry about being negatively evaluated in social situations, species-typical adaption that prevents social exclusion
4 reasons for shunning: 1) cowardice in face of danger 2) displaying aggression to in-group members 3) luring away mates 4) stealing
4 groups adaptive functions: 1) share food, info, resources 2) groups offer protection from external threat, defence from rivals 3) concentration of mates 4) contain kin, opportunities to receive altruism or invest in relatives
3 support to research 1) external threats have shown repeatedly to increase group cohesion 2) need to acquire resources increases cohesion 3) cross cultural studies
2 Helping & altruism in relation to relatives 1) more likely to help someone who is more closely related 2) more likely to younger then older family members
evolutionary psychologists 3 perspectives on emotion: 1) facial expression: same in diff. cultures 2) emotions are adaptive psychological mechanisms: fitness affordance- guide/ avoid to goals interfere w/ fitness 3) manipulation hypothesis: designed to exploit psychological mechanisms of others
Sex differences males and females will be the same or similar in domains in w/h sexes have faced same or similar adaptive problems - thermal regulation, taste preferences
Evolutionary-predicted sex differences hold that sexes will differ in precisely those domains where women & men have faced different sorts of adaptive problems : childbirth, paternity, securing resoucres
4 sex differences b/w men and women 1) aggression 2) jealousy 3) desire for sexual variety 4) mate preferences
5 Aggression 1) Males violence/ homicide 80% 2) competition 3) effective polygyny- males sire multiple offspring or none 4) sexually dimorphic - species w. high variance in reproduction w/n on sex 5) intraspecies competition, social status
5 Jealous in sex differences 1) men may invest in children that are not their own 2) men- sexual infidelity 3) women- losing resources to emotional involvement 4) men: double shot of infidelity: physical leading to emotional 5) women: reverse double shot of infidelity: emotional leads to physical
study one: asked if they saw partner being interested in another would sexual or emotional infidelity be worse 35% differences, women: emotional, men: sexual
2 second study: worst nightmare would be to see partner in emotional and physical infidelity, which aspect was worse 1) women 13% physical, 87% emotional 2) men 63% physical, 37% emotional
4 double shot theory is continually being shot down 1) cross culturally 2) sex differences are universal 3) able to recall cues that have to do w/ sex difference of jealousy: men - physical, women emotional 4) interrogation of lover is related to sex diff.
2 sex diff in desire for sexual variety 1) women prefer little 4-5 over lifetime 2) men prefer more 18 over a lifetime
3 sex diff in mate preferences 1) women want: qualities that lead to success 2) men want: physical attractive 3) both want exciting personality & kindness
Individual difference adaptive diff. b/w people
Evolutionary psychology explains individual diff. 1) result of environment 2) contingencies among traits: bad temper is dangerous w/ a strong body 3) frequency-dependent selection: reproductive success of trait depends on relative to pop. 4) optimum level of a personality trait can vary over time & space
Environmental diff in individual differences: w/ absences of father 1) adult bonds will not be lasting 2) early sexual maturation, initiation, & partner switching 3) increased extraversion & impulsivity 4) ppl are seen as untrustworthy
Environmental diff in individual differences: w/ father 1) ppl are seen as reliable & trustworthy 2) long-term mating 3) delayed sexual maturation, sexual activity 4) long lasting rela. 5) investment in small # of children
Problem w/ father study correlation is not causation
Contingency among Individual Diff: reactively heritable secondary consequence of heritable body build, relates to aggressive or cooperative strategies of interaction
Frequency dependent selection balance b/w sexes in a population, if one sex becomes lower more of that sex will be born
2 Womens mating strategies 1) parental invest of men 2) quality of genes
Restricted sexual strategy delayed intercourse & prolonged courtship to gain high-investing mate, results in women competing w/ women
Unrestricted mating strategy man’s level of commitment does not matter instead will have immediate sexual gratification, results in men fighting over men
Result of frequency dependent selection psychopathy decline or rise in population depending on result of women's mating habits, and the need for aggression or cooperation
Supports to psychopathy 1) moderately heritable 2) pursue to exploit sexual relationships 3) increase in geographical mobility = increase in psychopaths, no need for strong relationships in a big society
K-strategy greater effort is allocated to survival & heavy parenting over effort allocated to obtaining many mates
High or low levels of K 1) high: long term relationship 2) weak attachment to parents, risk taking
Balancing selection occurs w/in genetic variation is maintained by selection b/c different levels on a trait dimension are adaptive in diff. environment
Agreeableness romantic relationships
Extroversion leadership
Conscientiousness organized, good earnings
Limitations w/ evolutionary psychology 1) cannot go back in time to see evolution of adaptions 2) nature, details, design features are surface of information 3) modern conditions are different then ancestral 4) easy to come up w/ diff. competing evolutionary hypothesis for same phenomenon 5) untestable, unfalsifiable
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