Flashcards by SenorMonito, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by SenorMonito over 6 years ago


Flashcards on Wine, created by SenorMonito on 05/03/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What type of fungal disease is also known as Perenospera? Downy Mildew
What are the 3 non-systemic diseases? Downy Mildew Powdery Mildew Grey rot
What is the difference between Noble & Grey rot? Noble rot occurs when grape is already ripe
What is proper term for Noble Rot? Botrytis Cinerea
At what temperature does bud break occur? 10 degs C
What is Coulure? It is when less flowers are pollinated than normal i.e. the grape crop will be less
What is the the term of the combination of the natural factors making a vineyard? Terroir
What is the term for grapes ripening ?(colour turning) Véraison
What is diurnal temperature range? Difference between night and day temperatures
When will a newly planted or grafted vine expect to produce its first crop of usable grapes? 3 years
What type of climate has high rainfall and mild temperatures overall? Maritime
What term is often used to refer to the climate of a single section or row of a vineyard? Microclimate
What is the term for abnormal fruit set, sometimes caused by bad weather, resulting in many small, seedless berries in the bunches of grapes Millerandage
What is IPM? Integrated Pest Management
What unit of value is used to measure potential alcohol in a vat of grape must in France? Baume
What areas (degrees) of latitude are ideal for viticulture? 30-50 degrees
What is the term used for the type of vine training system where no trellis is used? Gobelet (bush training)
What is the proper term for the trunk and the major root system of a grapevine? Rootstock
What is the name of a spur-pruned vine system where the branches from each vine are trained along a wire? Cordon
What term is often used to refer to the weather conditions of an overall region? Climate or Macroclimate
What are the two types of winter pruning? Replacement Cane pruning Spur pruning
What is the term used for the preferred method of grape propagation that involves cutting off a small piece of a young vine and allowing it to grow roots? Cloning
What is the name of the root-eating louse that attacks vines? Phylloxera
Who is Rudolf Steiner? Developer of Biodynamics
What is the name of the process where sunlight is used by the vine to create sugar? Photosynthesis
What is the process of Photosynthesis?
What is the term for the transition from flower to berry? Fruit set
What is VSP? Vertical Shoot Positioning
What is the name of the vine training system where vine are trained up a tall support and the fruit is allowed to hang down? Pergola
In general, how much water do grapevines require annually? 50-75cm
At what age does a grapevine start to decline in vigor? 20 years
What fungal vine disease is also known as oidium? Powdery Mildew
What is the name used for a simple cane-pruned system where one cane from each vine is trained along a wire, all in the same direction? Guyot (or Replacement Cane Pruning)
What is the ideal weather during the flowering of the vine? 15 deg C, plenty of sunlight no/little rain
What is the term used for the increased direct sunlight that a vineyard on a hillside facing the sun enjoys? The Aspect (facing equator)
How many years after planting or grafting will a grapevine develop to a point where it is producing optimum quality fruit? 6 years
What is the term used for a vine's branches, while they are young and thin? Canes (or spurs depending on number of shoots)
What is the difference between a cane and a spur? Cane = 8-15 buds Spur = 2-3 buds (Both are one year old wood)
What is the term used for the type of grape propagation where an unrooted cutting is inserted into the trunk of an existing vine? Field grafting
What type of climate is found in areas far away from oceans, and experiences overall cold winters and hot summers? Continental
What is the process of Respiration?
What are Nemotodes? They are worms that attack vine roots
How do nemtoodes cause damage? They reduce yields, make the vine more suseptible to stress and transmit virus?
What type of climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters? Mediterranean
What are the synonyms for Tempranillo grape? Ull de Llebre Cencibel Tinta Roriz Aragonez Tinto del Pais
To achieve optimal ripeness, how many hours of sunshine do grapes need (in general)? 1,500 hours
How many mm of rain do vines need per year (in general)? 700mm
What grape variety is commonly added to the Syrah-based wines of the Côte-Rôtie Voignier
What can be added to grape must to reduce acidity? Potassium Bicarbonate mix of Calcium corbonate & clacium tartrate-malate (this is more effective)
What is Remontage? Also called "pumping over" it is the process of drawing wine from bottom of fermentation vat and pumping over the cap
What are advantages of "pumping over"? Dissipates heat Oxygenates juice (good for yeast) Improves colour extraction
How often is remontage done? twice a day
What is a hybrid grape variety? A hybrid grape variety is the offspring of two separate grape species e.g. Vitus Vinifera & Vitis Lambrusca
Name main grape species Vitis Vinifera Vitis Berlandieri Vitis Riparia Vitis rupestris Vitis Lambrusca
Why can't you grow other grape species other than Vitis Vinifera in EU? 1. It is not allowed by law (can use them as rootstock though) 2. They tend to make poor quality wine
What technique is used to make rose champagne? Blending (i.e. mixing red & white wine)
What are the four techniques for extraction during fermentation? Pumping over (remontage) Punching down Rack & Return Rotary fermenters
What is Saignee? Saignee is equivalent of bleeding whereby a portion of the juice is drawn off, but the rest left to ferment. i.e. rose is by-product of making a red wine
What are the three ways of making a rose wine? Drawing off Saignee (bleeding) Blending
Does EU allow blending to make a rose wine? No, unless it is to make rose champagne
Why does Saignee make lower quality rose wine? Because rose is a by-product of making red wine and the grape used to make red aren't the best for making rose
What grape is used to make red win from Chinon? Cabernet Franc
What are the four grapes allowed in Vendage Tardive? Riesling Pinot Gris Muscat Gerwurtztraminer
What is "Sainte-Croix-du-Mont"A A sweet white wine from Entre-Deux-Mers
Name four Chablis Grand-Cru Les Clos Blanchot Grenouilles Bourgros
Name four grapes of Burgundy AC Pinot Noir Chardonnay Gamay Aligote
Name the villages in Cote de Beaunes going from North to South Aloxe-Corton Pommard Volnay Meursault Puligny-Montrachet Chassagne-Montrachet
Name the key Beaujolais Cru going from North to South Saint Amour Julienas Chenas Moulin-a-vent Fleurie Chiroubles Morgon Regnie Brouilly Cote de Brouilly
Name the four key AC's in Cote Chalonnaise from N to S Bouzeron Rully Mercurey Givry Montagny
Name the key AC's of the Mâconnais Mâcon Mâcon-villages Pouilly-Fuissé Saint Véran Viré-Clessé
Name the key regions of Burgundy going from N-S Côte de nuits Côte de Beaune Côte Chalonnaise Mâconnais Beaujolais
What are "Special Quality Wines" from Hungary They are produced using Botrytis affected grapes
What grapes are used to make champagne? Meurnier Pinot Noir Chardonnay
What grape is used to make Blanc de Blancs champagne Chardonnay
What grapes are used to make Blanc de Noirs champagne Meurnier Pinot Noir
How does Blanc de Blancs compare with Blanc de Noirs champagne? Blanc de noirs has deeper golden colour and more intense flavour Blanc de blancs is more restrained and elegant
What is riddling? Process to move lees sediment in champagne to the neck of the bottle at the end of the second fermentation
What is a "tinaja"? A large clay vat traditionally used for storing wines in Spain
What does the term "Garrafeira" refer to? A quality standard and aging requirement for Portugese wines. min 6 mths oak & 6mths bottle for white 2yrs cask & 1yr bottle for red
What grapes are used in the Duoro area? Touriga Nacional Touriga Franca Tinta Barroca Tinta Roriz Tinta Cão
What are the three main grapes of the Valpolicella DOC? Corvina = main one Rondinella Molinara
What is "Teroldego"? A red grape variety grown in Trentino
What Italian region has the highest proportion of DOC production Trentino-Alto Adige
What the key grape varieties of Terras do Sado? Loureira Paderna
What are the permitted white grape varieties of Rioja? Virua Malvasia Garnacha Blanca
What is "aspersion"? A system of using an insulating coat of ice to protect young shoots from spring frost damage
What is the name of the traditional stone terracing in the Duoro? Socalcos
What is the capacity of the traditional "pipe" used for storing port in port houses? 550L
What does RM on a bottle of Champagne mean? It is a grower's champagne
What does "Dégorgement Tardive" mean? The wine was released very soon after disgorging
How can one increase acid in a grape must? Add tartaric acid crystals (happens more often in new world wines)
What are synonyms for the Chasselas grape variety Fendant Dorin Perlan
Name four villages in Saint-Emilion Montagne Lussac Puissegin Saint-Georges
What factors make up "Terroir"? Aspect Slope Climate Weather Grape Soil (sometimes just this)
What is Chlorosis? Symptom linked to nutritional deficiency (particularly Iron). Leaves turn yellow due to lack of chlorophyll => reduced photosynthesis
What is best cure for Chlorosis? Use rootstocks used to limestone soild (high levels of limestone are often the cause)
What is Charmat method? It is where curvée is transferred to a tank for secondary fermentation and bottled under pressure
What is Phylloxera? Disease caused by insects that infects roots that cut off flow of water and nutrients to vine. THERE IS NO CURE
What is Pierce's disease? Caused by Glassy-winged Sharpshooters. Creates a gel in the vine vascular tissue. This inhibits water flow. Turns leaves yellow/brown and then drop off. Vine is dead in 1-5 years
What are 4 types of Tequila? Blanco = unaged & white Joven/oro = unaged, but caramel added Resposado= ≤1yr in cask. Pale golden Añejo = rested ≥ 1yr in 600L bourbon barrels (new or old oak)
What is the difference between Mezcal & Tequila? Mezcal is from anywhere in Mexico. Tequila is from the specific region
What percentage of fermentable sugars in Tequila must come from Blue Agave? 51%
Why is tequila not aged more than 3 years? Because hot temperatures mean that oak overwhelms Agave flavour
What does Flor yeast need to grow? Oxygen Nutrients (glycerol & acids) Cool temperatures High humidity Alcohol levels between 14.5 & 16%
What does Flor yeast do in Sherry? Reduces alcohol and sugar levels. Produces acetaldehydes. i.e fino sherries are bone dry and have distinct flavour
What does Flor do with glycerol? Uses it to support growth
What is KWV? It was the South African central Wine monopoly. Disbanded in 1997.
What are the ordering of geographical units in South Africa? (from largest to smallest) Region, district, ward, estate
What are the ordering of German Geographical classification? Anbaugebeit, Bereich, Grosslage (group of vineyards), Einzellage (single vineyard)
What are the three sub-regions of Rioja? Rioja Alavesa (≤ 800m & 500mm rain, chalky soil) Rioja Alta (500-800m, 500mm rain, limestone soils) Rioja Baja (lower alt, 300mm rain => drought, heavy clay soils)
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