Monica Rodrigues
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AS organic chemistry flashcards on alkenes

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Monica Rodrigues
Created by Monica Rodrigues about 3 years ago
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Question Answer
How are σ-bonds formed? When orbitals overlap end to end directly between two nuclei 2bbd02fd-77d9-400b-a0aa-d3c6b24a9555.png (image/png)
How are π-bonds formed? When p-orbitals overlap sideways above and below direct line between the atoms eb974a7a-f558-4bd7-b92b-c10b90b35540.png (image/png)
What are stereoisomers? Have the same structural formula but different arrangement of atoms in space 36969e7f-ba52-4f09-9fa4-1bf61e125ceb.jpg (image/jpg)
What is a structural isomer? Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae 30fcec96-2c26-4e25-a721-55b0a39dd639.jpg (image/jpg)
Why is rotation not normally possible around a C=C double bond? Rotation would break the π-bond (destroy the sideways overlap of the p-orbital) which requires too much energy at room temperature
What features must be present in a molecule if it can exist as a pair of E/Z isomers? > A double bond > Each of the double bonded carbon atoms must also have different groups bonded to it 62b7699a-ff5b-44ff-8daa-445530fcb08c.gif (image/gif)
What does a curly arrow signify? The movement of a pair of electrons 6e2aed12-3a3d-427d-86bb-9f497c322492.png (image/png)
What is the meaning of the term electrophile? Attraction of a pair of electrons. Electron pair acceptor
What type of bond-breaking occurs during electrophilic addition? Heterolytic fission > Double bonds in alkenes are broken to enable other atoms to be added to the carbon atoms 7a2bf216-862b-4214-8d82-10dbe11cf876.gif (image/gif)
The cheapest way of disposing decommissioned polybutylene is to bury it in landfill. What is the disadvantage of this? > Landfills require space. Can be an eyesore as well as damage existing wildlife habitats > Alkene plastics are not biodegradable so more and more land will be needed 1ef2e6c4-58c1-47d2-a276-8f48008d223e.jpg (image/jpg)
3 alternative methods of dealing with the waste polybutylene, which are more sustainable than burial in landfill? > Recycle/ reuse > Use as feed-stock for cracking to produce alkenes (for fuel) and alkenes (for making other polymers) > Combustion to give heat to generate electricity
What is the systematic name of PVC? Poly(chloroethene) 61ffce48-db3e-435d-8dec-2d9e1552d5c2.jpg (image/jpg)
PVC can be disposed of by combustion, provided precautions are taken to prevent pollution problems. Why? > Chlorinated plastic such as PVC produce hydrogen chloride gas which is toxic as it produces hydrochloric acid when it dissolves in the moisture of the lungs > However, this can be removed by passing the waste gases through aqueous alkali
What does biodegradable mean? Can be broken down by living organisms 874a8efe-a7df-4df5-a2da-28e3170311d2.jpg (image/jpg)
What does photodegradable mean? Can be broken down by exposure to light 873dbf66-f5de-442b-8834-c7628b95b63f.png (image/png)
What are the advantages of polymers being biodegradable or photodegradable? The plastics would not accumulate in the environment (on land or at sea) where these may be eaten by animals or be an eyesore
Conditions for HALIGANATION with a HALOGEN? > Halogen > Does not need UV light can occur in the dark
Conditions for HALIGANATION with a HYDROGEN HALIDE? > Dissolve alkene in non-polar solvent > Bubble hydrogen halide through alkene
Conditions for HYDROGENATION reaction? > Nickel catalyst > Heat around 60°C
Conditions for HYDRATION reaction? > Steam > 300°C > 60atm > Phosphoric acid catalyst
What is Markownikoff's rule used for? Find out the stability of carbocations which is used to predict the major product in an electrophilic addition mechanism
Primary carbocation Has atleast 2 or more hydrogens attached 45cb9b4f-bbf6-4bf7-8fc3-131d6f85a2ac.JPG (image/JPG)
Secondary carbocation Only has 1 hydrogen attached to it 3f4176f1-ae28-4133-8aef-32f0c861b736.JPG (image/JPG)
Tertiary carbocation Has no hydrogens attached 4072f9ac-c373-4a08-91fb-d15b49d57239.JPG (image/JPG)