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alex.kilvington
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Flashcards on Untitled_1, created by alex.kilvington on 05/01/2013.

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alex.kilvington
Created by alex.kilvington almost 6 years ago
Edexcel Additional Science Biology Topic 1- Genes and Enzymes
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Question Answer
Histological structure of the GI tract What are the 4 tissue layers of the GI tract? 1. mucosa - a thin columnar epithelial layer which forms folds (inside layer) 2. submucosa - increased blood and lymphatic vessels that absorb production of digestion 3. Muscularismucosa - longitudinal and circular smooth (involuntary) muscle 4. serosa layer - simple squamous epithelial and areolar connective tissue
What do these abreviations mean? GALT MALT Gut/Mouth Associated Lymphatic Tissue
Name 3 salivary glands Parotid Sublingual Submandibular
Saliva is 0.5% solute. In this solute there is Amalyse lysozymes mucus what do they do? Amalyse begin digestion of carbohydrates Lysozymes destroy bacteria in food Mucus softens and lubricates
The pharynx is divided into two sections what are these? oropharynx nasopharynx
When swallowed the bolus goes through 3 stages moving from the mouth down the oesophagus what are these? 1. voluntary stage - bolus moves to the back of the mouth 2. pharyngel stage - bolus moves down through the pharynx 3. oesophageal stage - food passes down oesophagus via peristalsis.
where does the chyme from the stomach next enter after stomach digestion? duodenum
What type of digestion occurs in the stomach gastric
What inactive enzyme do the cheif cells in the gastric pit produce and how is it activated? Pepsinogen Coverted: Pepsinogen + HCl (low pH) = pepsin
what does pepsin digest? large proteins
how is the surface of the stomach protected from stomach acid? mucus layer which acts as a buffer of pH 7 which contains bicarbonate ions protecting against autodigestion
what part of the GI tract is the pancreas attached to? Duodenum
what is the pancreas made up off glandular epithelium
What are the 6 stages of digestion? 1. ingestion 2. secretion 3. mixing and propulsion 4. digestion 5. absorption 6. defecation