ABG Definitions

Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

Definitions of key words and terms for the atoms, bonds and groups exam.

Created by Amy96 over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Relative Atomic Mass The weighed mean mass of an atom of an element compared to the mass of 1/12th of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative Isotopic Mass The mass of an atom of an isotope of an element compared to the mass of 1/12th of an atom of carbon-12.
Covalent Bond The bonding between non-metals when a pair of electrons is shared between atoms.
Ionic Bond The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Lone Pair An electron pair that is not involved in a covalent bond.
Dative Covalent Bond A covalent bond in which one of the atoms supplies both the shared electrons to the bond.
Relative Molecular Mass The total sum of the relative atomic masses of the atoms in the molecule.
Mole The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope.
Avogadro Constant The number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope n= 6.02x10²³ molˉˡ
Molar Mass The mass per mole of a substance.
Empirical Formula The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
Avogadro's Hypothesis Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
Molar Volume The volume per mole of a gas. At RTP the molar volume is dm³ molˉˡ.
Standard Solution A solution of known concentration, that are usually used in titrations to determine unknown information about another substance.
Concentrated Solution A solution with a large amount of solute per dm³.
Dilute Solution A solution with a small amount of solute per dm³.
Acid A proton donor that gives a solution with a pH of less than 7.
Base A species that is a proton acceptor.
Alkali A special type of base that dissolves in water forming aqueous OHˉ ions and a solution with a pH greater than 7.
Salt An ionic compound where the H+ ion from the parent acid has been replaced by a metal or ammonium ion.
Oxidation Number A measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
First Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove one outermost electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous ions.
π Bond The sideways overlap of two p-orbitals.
Quantum Number Numbers used to describe the electrons in atoms. The Principle Quantum Number indicates the shell an electron occupies.
Atomic Orbital A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins.
Region A space within an atom that electrons could be found.
Non-Polar Bond A bond where the electrons in the bond are evenly distributed.
Polar Bond A bond in which the electrons are attracted to one of the atoms in the bond more than the other.
Electronegativity A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
Intermolecular Forces Forces that act between different molecules and are much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds.
Permanent Dipole A weak attractive force between permanent dipoles (polar bonds) in neighbouring polar molecules.
Van der Waals Forces Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules, caused by random movement of electrons.
Hydrogen Bond hbonds.gif (image/gif)
Metallic Bond The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised negative electrons.
Delocalised Electrons Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms.
Giant Covalent Structure A structure in which atoms are held in a lattice in all directions by strong covalent bonds.
Giant Ionic Lattice A structure held together by ionic bonds, because each ion attracts oppositely charged ions from all directions.
Disproportionation A reaction in which the same element is both reduced and oxidised.
Precipitation Reaction A reaction that takes place in aqueous solutions when aqueous ions react together to form a solid precipitate.