Basic Concepts in genetics

Norma Sempa
Flashcards by Norma Sempa, updated more than 1 year ago
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Degree Biological (Week 2: Genetic and Environmental) Flashcards on Basic Concepts in genetics, created by Norma Sempa on 10/03/2016.

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Chromosomes They store key info about our genetic information. A thread-like structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Most human cells contain 46 chromosomes. 22 pairs of Chromosomes called autosomes. XX in females, XY in males 6b14dbb2-3b4a-4ae4-947a-8f0914b481b5.jpg (image/jpg)
Gene A specified portion of a chromosome determining inherited characteristics. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. 603d5239-4e58-4631-aef1-7cc2c301417d.jpg (image/jpg)
Genome Genome is the collection of genetic information in the entirety of an organism's heredity information. The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism. 7a75972e-3fb6-4f71-91ba-473a34855949.png (image/png)
Allele Allele's are different versions of a gene carried in chromosomes. A recessive allele only shows if the individual has two copies of it. For example, the allele for blue eyes is recessive. You need two copies of this allele to have blue eyes. A dominant allele always shows, even if the individual only has one copy of it. For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of it to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes. 054ea8df-7c44-4771-9f20-a704fe0a7e55.gif (image/gif)
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Double stranded molecule containing genetic information. - Basis of chromosomes
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Single stranded molecule - Template for synthesis of protein molecules
What are the chemical bases DNA is made up of? And how are they paired Adenine (A), Guarnine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T) A - T G - C
What is Transcription? The process of making an RNA copy of DNA 1) DNA helix unwinds 2) Transcription begins at a popular location when enzyme (RNA Polymerase) initiates RNA synthesis 3) Transcription continues for one whole gene 4) New RNA strand separates from DNA
Homozygous A person has an identical pair of alleles on the two chromosomes. If an organism has two copies of the same allele, for example AA or aa, it is homozygous for that trait
Heterozygous A person has an unmatched pair of alleles on the two chromosomes. If an organism has two unidentical copies of the same allele, for example Aa, it is heterozygous.
Dominant Gene shows STRONG effect/influence in both homozygous and heterozygous conditions (Capital letters) and takes presendence over a recessive allele.
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