French Revolution Flashcards

Natasha Gidluck
Flashcards by Natasha Gidluck, updated more than 1 year ago
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Social Studies (The French Revolution) Flashcards on French Revolution Flashcards, created by Natasha Gidluck on 10/21/2016.
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Absolutism A monarch has total power over all citizens and matters, rules by divine right, creates all laws, and is the highest judge in the state.
Divine Right The King was chosen and represented by God-and therefore connected to the church and clergy. To challenge the King was to challenge the authority of God.
Feudalism A system of loyalty and obligation between the noble and the peasants. Nobles granted safety in exchange for special rights, privileges, taxes, and dues.
Later Feudalism Peasants still had to pay the nobles and ask permission for everyday activities, but the nobles did nothing in return. Reason was that the emerging monarch was in charge of all security and protection.
Life of a Peasant Lived in poverty, no rights, no freedom, lowest class, and had to ask nobles to hunt, use the oven or grinding mill, keep animals on the land, and to keep a sword. They paid the nobles an annual tax, gave a portion of their crops, and did free work for them.
Corvee Free work for the nobility done by peasants.
Mercantilism Run by the monarch. All wealth was measured in gold and silver, so territory was fought over to find it. Continual fighting, large navies, and no free trade between countries.
The Three Estates Made up all the people of France and were organized through wealth and power. No movement between states whatsoever.
The First Estate Made up of the religious leaders, clergy, and the church. Represented only 1% of the population but owned 20% of the land.
The Second Estate Made up of the nobility, King, Queen, and people of royal blood. Represented 2% of the population and owned and controlled the majority of the land.
The Third Estate Made up of the peasants, bourgeoisie, and the rest of society. Represented 97% of the population but had little wealth or power.
The Enlightenment/ Age of Reason Aristocrats and philosophers (such as Newton, Copernicus, and Galileo) offered different insights about the world and created new ideas such as freedom, 3 parts of gov, and ruling for the people. Influenced modern society.
King Louis XVI King of France when the revolution begins in 1789, married to Marie Antionette
Marie Antoinette Not like by the French because she was from Austria and could not produce an heir for a long period of time. Known and blamed for needless spending of money.
Maximilien de Robespierre Leader of the Jacobins during the revolution, seen as a villain, executed after Louis, face up. Called the "incorruptable"
Jean Paul Marat Powerful and passionate newspaper writer and doctor who inspired revolution supporters and eventually was murdered in his bathtub. Lived in sewers for a time
Olympe de Gouges Daughter of a butcher who supports women rights and composes The Declaration of the Rights of Women. Executed during the Reign of Terror
Abbe Sieyes Made a speech titled "What is the Third Estate" that brought attention to the suffering of peasants
Jaques Necker A finance minister that worked with Louis XVI and came up with the financial solution of taxing the nobles more heavily
Marquis de Lafayette A nobleman who fought in the American Revolution on the side of those wanting freedom from Britain. Seen as an inspirational war hero
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity The motto of the Revolution and now France that symbolizes the Revolution's goals and what they were fighting for
Girodins The Revolution group that supported the ideas but not the bloodshed that continued on into the Reign of Terror
Jacobins The Revolution group that were the extremists and carried out the killing of the King
Sans Culottes Means "Those without short pants" and symbolizes the separation from nobility and more the members of the Bourgeoisie
Guillotine Invented by a doctor and modified by Louis XVI himself, this became the execution method for all people including royalty during the Reign of Terror. Nicknamed the national razor
Storming of the Bastille Considered one of the first steps of the French Revolution and seen as a national symbol of the fight for the people
August 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Everyone considered equal and revokes the rights of the monarchy
September 1792 Monarchy abolished and replaced with the republic, new tricolour flag and national anthem
Bourgeoisie The middle class who were educated, traveled, and prosperous in their businesses
Bonnet Rouge Red hat present mainly at the beginning of the Revolution and in support of its ideas
Tricolour Cockade Worn in the beginning of the Revolution to show support for its ideas. Had the colours Red, White, and Blue
Napoleon Bonaparte The famous war hero who inspired French soldiers to battle and was considered a genius. Had considerable power in France at times and was present after the Revolution
The Tennis Court Oath Made in a tennis court with the promise that the citizens of France would not leave until they had established rights and equality for everyone. Represented the nation- National Assembly
The Estates General A French version of parliament that was called to meet when the country suffered a severe financial crisis. Made up of the nobility and middle class
Josephine Napoleons love and wife who ended up having affairs with other men when he was gone. Later divorced because she could not have any of his children
Napoleon becomes First Consul and then Emperor First counsel after conquest of Egypt, and Emperor of France after victory in Europe.
Continental System Created by Napoleon to stop all trade with Britain
Napoleon's invasion of Russia His greatest failure and mark of his downfall came because of the delayed time and weather as well as the reconvening forces from the other side. Started with 500 000 men and ended with 10 000
Parisian Women Attack The "fish women" were peasants who were strong from gutting fish and lugging carts around, so when they attacked Versailles to get Marie Antoinette, the royal family hid. Eventually found them and took them to Paris.
The Exiles of Napoleon After he invaded Russia, Napoleon was sent to Elba, but later escaped and rallied the Kings soldiers to his side. Then again, after the defeat of Waterloo with the Duke of Wellington, he was sent to St. Helena
Voltaire Had ideas about freedom of thought and religion during the Age of Reason
Montesquieu Argued that there should be 3 branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) so that no one person could have all the power
Locke Thought that the government should exist for and with the consent of the people
Rousseau Argued for the improvement of peasant life and restrictions for the government and King
King Louis XIV The 14th said, "I am the state"
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