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The Enlightenment

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High School Diploma Social Studies (World History) Flashcards on The Enlightenment, created by Niat Habtemariam on 01/22/2014.
Niat Habtemariam
Flashcards by Niat Habtemariam, updated more than 1 year ago
Niat Habtemariam
Created by Niat Habtemariam over 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
What did John Locke contribute to the Enlightenment? Said that people have natural rights to "life, liberty and property" (in Declaration of Independence).
What did Thomas Hobbes contribute to the Enlightenment? He said that we need a king that can protect the people and make trusted decisions for them.
What did Voltaire contribute to the Enlightenment? Stated that people should have freedoms of thought, speech, and religion (which inspired the 1st Amendment in the US Constitution)
What did Rousseau contribute to the Enlightenment? Said that power corrupts people and that people should give up their power to be ruled by the "general will of authority."
What were the effects of the Scientific Revolution on the society of Europe? People had a different way of thought and of viewing the world. People believed that the world could progress and be perfected. Moreover, science ideas brought the European governments to the ground.
What is meant by "Natural Rights"? Natural Rights Rights that belong to people since birth; right to life, liberty, and property
What is "Liberty"? Having freedom in society with little or no restrictions.
How did the Enlightenment lead to the American and French Revolution? The enlightenment led to ideas that government was misusing and was taking away peoples' liberty and equality.
What did Montesquieu contribute to the Enlightenment? Had the idea of dividing the government's power into three (separation of powers) branches. No branches would have more power over another branch (checks and balances).
How did Marry Wollstonecraft contribute to the Enlightenment? Had the Idea that women should have the same rights as men, equal rights.
How did Jefferson contribute to the Enlightenment? His "Declaration of Independence" inspired people to overthrow their government and democracy.
What does "Enlightened Despot" mean? Absolute Rulers that embrace the new ideas and reforms created during the Enlightenment.
Give some examples of "Enlightened Despots." Catherine the Great of Russia, Fredrick the II of Prussia, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria.
What did Fredrick the II of Prussia do during the Enlightenment? He granted many religious freedoms, abolished torture, and improved the education and justice system.
What did Catherine the Great of Russia do during the Enlightenment? Modernized and reformed Russsia according the writings of philosophies.
What did Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria do during the Enlightenment? Tried to enforce freedom of religion
What was the Enlightenment? A cultural and scientific movement that began in the late 17th - 18th century emphasizing reason and individualism, rather than tradition.
What is a social contract? Agreement by which people give up a state of nature for an organized society.
What did Becarria contribute to the Enlightenment? Had the idea of abolishing torture. Lead to torture becoming outlawed or reduced in Europe and North America.
What did Issac Newton's ideas contribute to? The Scientific Revolution.
What is the Scientific Revolution? Scientific discoveries and A new way of how people viewed the world.
What did the Scientific Revolution encourage people to do? The Scientific Revolution encouraged people to question things around them.
What did Fredrick the II of Prussia call himself? "The first servant of the state"
What is a salon? A palace where social gatherings were held. Philosophers, artists, writers, scientists, and other great intellects went to discuss ideas.
Freedom/Liberty Analogy Once people have a small taste of freedom, then they will want more. American Revolution = 1st taste ice cream!!!
Why is learning good? The more we know, the more we learn, the greater ideas are created.
Why didn't people (at first) not want a democracy? They considered Roman & Greek democracy a failure (because their government didn't last as long)
Who was Dennis Diderot and what did he do? He collected collected Enlightenment articles in an Encyclopedia that helped to spread ideas throughout Europe and the Americas. His Encyclopedia had articles from famous authors.
How did new ideas create greater challenges to society? While churches and monarchies tried to stop the flow of ideas, Enlightenment thinkers found new ways of spreading their ideas, such as through novels and salons.
How did churches and monasteries try to stop Enlightenment ideas from being spread? Through censorship
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