Language and Power

Flashcards by brogan_mace, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by brogan_mace over 7 years ago


A Levels English Flashcards on Language and Power, created by brogan_mace on 03/26/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Political Power Power held by those with the backing of the law
Personal Power Power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations
Social Power Group Power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social group.
Instrumental Power Power used to maintain and enforce authority.
Influential Power Power used to influence or persuade others.
Power in Discourse The ways in which power is manifested in situations through language.
Power behind discoure The focus on the social and ideological reasons behind the enactment of power.
Ideology A set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view held by an individual or groups.
Epistemic Modality Constructions that express degrees of possibility, probability or certainty.
Deontic modality Constructions that express degrees of necessity and obligation.
Synthetic Personalisation The way in which advertising and other forms of communication use personalized language such as the second person pronoun 'you' to construct a relationship between text producer and receiver.
Member's resources The vast amount of background knowledge and information that readers use in order to interpret texts and which may be explicitly drawn upon by text producers.
Power asymmetry A marked different in the power status of individuals involved in discourse.
Unequal encounter An alternative term for asymmetrical, highlighting the power one speaker has over another.
Powerful participant A speaker with a higher status in a given context, who is therefore able to impose a degree of power.
Less powerful participant Those with less status in a given context, who are subject to constraints imposed by more powerful participants.
Constraints Ways in which powerful participants may block of control the contributions of less powerful participants, for example through controlling content or interrupting.
Formulation The rewording of another's contributions by a powerful participant to impose a certain meaning or understanding.
Face A person's self-esteem or emotional needs
Positive Face The need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
Negative Face The need to have freedom of though and action and not feel imposed on.
Face threatening act A communicative act that threatens someone's positive- or negative- face needs.
Positive and Negative politeness stratagies Redressive strategies that a speaker might use to mitigate or avoid face threatening acts.
Small Talk Talk that is primarily international in orientation and is geared towards establishing relationships
Repressive discourse strategy A more indirect way of exercising power and control through conversational constraints.
Oppressive Discourse Strategy Linguistic behavior that is open in its exercising of power and control.
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