BNeuroscience Exam 2

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BNeuro Hunger/Thirst

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What is the main homeostatic mechanism? If you deviate from ______, compensatory action begins. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYTEMS. If you deviate from a SET POINT, your body tries to compensate and keep things balanced.
What is hypovolemic thirst? Hypovolemic thirst is thirst stimulated by LOW OR LOSS OF EXTRACELLULAR/INTRAVASCULAR (WATER) VOLUME. Your outside cells have less water, and you get low blood pressure. Note: CONCENTRATION is not changed
Where in the brain would lesions cause overeating? If you have lesions in the VENTROMEDIAL HYPOTHALAMUS, obesity may result. In an experiment, VMH lesioned rats overeat until they become obese. Stability and a new SET POINT is made at this heavier weight. Thus, even if you are a scientist and force-feed VMH lesioned rats, the rats, when the force feeding stops, will drop back down to the new set point, as opposed to the original, healthy set-point. The lesion causes overeating and a new set point for “normal” in the rat. Perhaps Izzy has an abnormal set point.
After you’ve eaten, what central signals are in your body to stop eating? Central signals: alpha-MSH, CRH/UCN, GLP-4, CART, NE, 5-HT. Most significantly, POMC/CART neurons produce pro-opiomelanocortin (opium) and CART, which do two things for weight loss: a. INHIBIT appetite b. RAISE metabolism c. PS: You’ve learned from the previous exam that cocaine and amphetamines suppress appetite
Lesions in what part of your brain would cause refusal to eat? LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS. a. LH lesioned animals stop eating, and stabilize their weight at a new lower level because of a new, lower set point. b. Perhaps anorexics have a lower set point
In hypertension, what hormone is inhibited? Angiotensin II
Central signals to start eating include? Central Signals to start eating include NPY/AgRP NEURONS which produce neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide. This has two effects which leads to weight gain: a. STIMULATE appetite b. LOWER metabolism
What are some peripheral signals to start eating? Peripheral Signals: a. GHRELIN is released by STOMACH endocrine cells. This is an appetite stimulant that RISES DURING FASTING and DROPS AFTER EATING. b. CORTISOL stimulates appetite when you are stressed. A hungry body needs more energy
What is osmotic thirst? Osmotic thirst is thirst stimulated by HIGH EXTRACELLULAR SOLUTE CONCENTRATION. Water can leave the cell, but salt cannot. When water leaves the cell, the cell shrinks
What neurons respond to a rise in blood osmotic pressure? Where are they found? OSMOSENSORY NEURONS, which are found in the anterior hypothalamus (OVLT)
What are the five receptors for the somatosensory system? Free Nerve Endings, Merkel’s Disc, Meissner’s Corpuscle, Pacinian Corpuscle, and Ruffini’s Ending
What are the differences between the non-pain fibers? Merkel v. Meissner v Pacinian v. Ruffini a. MERKEL’s DISC is precise and important for touch. This is slow and detects sustained TOUCH and PRESSURE. It can identify if you are holding a quarter or a penny in your hand. This is SUPERFICIAL. b. MEISSNER’S CORPUSCLE is also precise for touch, but it is fast, detecting changes in TEXTURE. This is SUPERFICIAL. c. PACINIAN CORPUSCLE is imprecise (you don’t need to know how much something is moving, just that it is) and detects VIBRATION. It is fast and found DEEP down in the dermis. d. RUFFINI’S ENDING is imprecise, and detects STRETCH and TENSION deep in the skin. It is slow.
What is "the light at the end of the candle"? Paraphasia
The inability to speak clearly is...? Dysarthria
What is the inability to sequence a complex motor act? Dyspraxia
If someone can only say a few words, and they catch themselves becoming frustrated because they understand they aren't making sense, what do they have? Nonfluent - Broca's Aphasia (also maybe anomia)
Someone who is happily speaking broken nonsense like they are content with what they are saying indicates they have what? Fluent - Wernicke's Aphasia
A total inability to speak or understand language is called what? Global aphasia
What is akinetopsia? Motion blindness; Perception of motion needs to have accurate tagging. It’s a timing thing! The tagging isn’t working
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