Chapter 11

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IS FINAL EXAM Flashcards on Chapter 11, created by aleaguirre on 05/03/2013.

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Question Answer
Change Management System a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change
Change Control Board (CCB) responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests
Traditional Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) -Original/traditional method for building information systems -Phased approach with formal stages -“Waterfall approach” -Formal division of labor between end-users and IT
Prototype Preliminary model built rapidly and inexpensively; a small scale version of the system
Four Step Process of Prototyping 1.Identify the user’s basic requirements 2.Develop an initial prototype 3.Use the prototype 4.Revise and enhance the prototype
End User Development -End users create simple information systems with little or no assistance from technical specialists -Use fourth-generation languages, graphics languages, and PC software tools to access data, create reports, and develop information systems
Purchasing Solutions -Purchase a software package from a commercial vendor -Generalized systems for universal functions with standard processes -Customization
onshore outsourcing engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country
offshore outsourcing using organizations from developing (or far-shore) countries to write code and develop systems
Rapid Application Development (RAD) -Creating workable systems in a very short period of time -Utilize prototyping, visual programming techniques, reusable standardized SW components, and JAD techniques
JAD – Joint application design End users and information systems specialists working together on design
Data Flow Diagram (Structured Methodologies/Tools) represents the processes of a system and the flow of data between them
Process Specification (Structured methodologies/tools) describe the transformation occurring within the lowest level of the data flow diagrams, showing the logic for each process
Structure Chart (Structured Methodologies/Tools) a top-down chart showing each level of design, its relationship to other levels, and its place in the overall design structure
Object- Oriented Development Uses the concept of an “object” as the basic unit of analysis and design – an object combines the data and the specific processes that operate on that data
Component-based development and Web services a way to develop SW by using SW components for common functions to quickly develop system
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) -Provides software tools to automate some steps in the previously described methodologies -Reduces repetitive work in systems development
CASE tools facilitate -clear documentation -coordination of team development efforts -modest productivity benefits if tools are used correctly
Project a planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective
Project Management application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to achieve targets within specified budget and time constraints
Project Management Variables -Scope -Time -Cost -Quality -Risk
Project Selection -must select the projects to pursue evaluate and compare the choices -Determine project costs and benefits Tangible benefits Intangible benefits Capital budgeting methods – ROI, NPV, IRR
Level of project risk is affected by -Project size -Project structure -Required level of technical expertise
Overcoming user resistance -Promote user participation -Pay attention to user interfaces and ergonomic issues -Conduct an Organizational Impact analysis
Gantt Chart lists project activities along with their start and completion dates – visually represents the timing and duration of different tasks
PERT Chart graphically depicts the project tasks and their interrelationships/dependencies
Parallel Conversion (Step 4) using both old and new systems until it is evident that the new system performs correctly
Plunge (direct cutover) conversion (Step 4) discard old system completely and start using new system
Pilot Conversion (Step 4) implement new system in one department or location only until it is evident that the new system works
Phased Conversion (Step 4) implement new system in phases or pieces
Production (Step 4) -the actual use of the system in the real world setting - ongoing review of the system to determine how well it is meeting the Information Requirements and objectives to determine if any modifications are needed
Maintenance (Step 4) - changes required to correct or enhance a system - different types of maintenance
Corrective Maintenance repair defects or flaws in the design, coding or implementation
Adaptive Maintenance increase system functionality to meet new business requirements
Perfective Maintenance enhancements or improvements; desired but not necessarily required features
Preventative Maintenance changes to reduce the chance of system failure
Change Management a set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management of the design and implementation of a system
System Development Software that is built correctly can transform as the organization and its business transform
Causes of System Development project failure -Missed deadlines -Going over budget -Unclear or missing business requirements -Users’ needs that weren’t met -Dissatisfied customers -Lack of support from top management
Four Steps to Building an Information System 1.Define and understand the problem 2.Develop alternative solutions 3.Choose a solution 4.Implement the solution
Step 1: Defining and Understanding the Problem What caused the problem? Why does it persist? Why hasn’t it been solved? What are the objectives of a solution?
Information Requirements the detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful and meet objectives
Step 2: Developing Alternative Solutions Develop alternative solutions to achieve the objectives and Information Requirements that were identified
Step 3: Evaluating and Choosing Solutions Conduct a Feasibility Study to determine whether each alternative is feasible and achievable
Step 4: Implementing the Solution System design is the detailed design, model or blueprint for the system solution
Testing system is thoroughly tested to determine it produces the right results/output
Unit Testing detailed testing of individual computer programs or modules
System Testing tests the performance of the information system as a whole
Acceptance testing tests that the system is ready to be used in a production or “real” setting
Training (Step 4) -For successful implementation to occur, users will require training so they will be able to use the new system -Different types of training are available: on-line, face-to-face, built-in “help” features, etc.
Documentation (Step 4) -Shows how the system works from both a technical and end-user perspective -User manuals and reference guides -Installation procedures -Troubleshooting guides and procedures
Conversion (Step 4) the process of changing from the old system to the new system