Eisenhower 1953-1961

Flashcards by jacksearle, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jacksearle over 7 years ago


A-Levels Cold War (Individuals) Flashcards on Eisenhower 1953-1961, created by jacksearle on 03/28/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What did Eisenhower attack Truman of being during his election campaign Soft on Communism
How did Eisenhower describe containment futile and immoral
What did Dulles emphasise in the lead up to the election Roll back and liberation of Eastern Europe from the USSR
In summary, what was the impact of Hungary 1956 It exposed the weakness of the USA - showed that in practice roll back would not work - containment still the only option available
What were Hungarian protesters encouraged by? Messages through Radio Free Europe from E and D, believed they'd receive US aid
What was the US reaction to hungary? was restricted to strong condemnation of the USSR and the U.S. taking 25000 Hungarian refugees
Why couldn't the US get involved in Hungary? US govt knew that any direct involvement in Hungary would almost certainly trigger nuclear war
Why did Eisenhower want better relation with the USSR? Reason 1 Military background made him fully aware of the dangers of a nuclear war that could 'destroy civilisation'
Why did Eisenhower want better relation with the USSR? Reason 2 Concerned that military spending, 12% of GNP in mid 50s was too high and could affect living standards. Better relations = decreased likelihood of nuclear war=decreased military spending
Why did Eisenhower want better relation with the USSR? Reason 3 U2s showed USSR significantly behind in terms of arms. The US could negotiate from a position of strength. E knew USSR could not win a nuclear war.
What was Massive Retaliation? The USA would make greater use of nuclear threats and place less reliance on conventional weaponry
Why were the circumstances that massive retaliation would be used kept deliberately vague? To put opponents at a disadvantage
2 instances of brinkmanship 1953 US threaten China with nuclear weapons to bring korean war to an end - they do quickly 1954-55 Chinese shelling of Quemoy and Matsu ended by US threats
3 examples of increased covert operations 1953 CIA operation to put pro-western Pahlavi in charge of Iran. had an ally on USSR border 1954 CIA backed coup against Guatemalan president Guzman Development of U2 spy planes
What is Domino theory and when did E come up with it If vietnam fell to comm then so would the surrounding countries - 1954
What was the effect of domino theory? The setting up of SEATO
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 Committed US aid to any country in the middle east threatened by comm - wanted to protect oil supplies
What summits did Eisenhower attend? Geneva 55, Paris 60
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